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It is a material used for recording the form and

dimensions of the oral tissues.
The set impression: is a negative reproduction of the oral
The model, cast or die: is a positive and obtained by
pouring the impression with plaster or stone
Ideal properties of the impression materials:
1.The impression material should be accurate.
2.It should be biocompatible, non toxic or
irritant, acceptable odors and taste.
3.Not affected by the oral fluids and easy
manipulated It has suitable working and setting
4.It should accept addition and correction.
5.It should readily disinfect without loss of
6.It should have a good shelf life.
Classification of the Impression materials
1. According to the manner they harden
By heat By chemical
(Thermoplastic) (Thermoset)

Agar (Hydrocolloid) Plaster of Paris

Impression compound Alginate (Hydrocolloid)

Waxes Zinc oxide paste

2. According to behavior of the impression after setting

Non elastic Elastic

Waxes Hydrocolloids
Plaster of Paris Elastomers

Zinc oxide and eugenol Polysulfide

Impression compound Polyether

Used when no undercut exists

Used when undercut exists
Non Elastic Impression Materials
Plaster Impression
Composition: (powder + water)
1.ß- Calcium sulfate hemihydrates (caso4 1/2 H2o).
2. Borax 1%: To reduce the rate of the setting time
3.Potato starch: starch swells when soaked in water
and will be easy to remove from the stone model
4.Natural gums: To improve handling, increase
cohesion, and facilitate border molding
5.Flavoring agents: To make it more acceptable.
6.Coloring materials: To distinguish it from the cast.
1. It has a high flow .
2. It is hydrophilic and thus adapt easily to the soft
3. It has controlled setting expansion (0.06%).
4. It will fracture if subjected to distortion into clear
clean-cut fragments, it can be reassembled.
5. Dimensionally stable.
Cannot used in partial dentures or crown &bridges.
A separating medium should be used, like varnish.
6. It has unpleasant taste, dehydration of the tissue for
the patients.
7. It easily manipulation, cheap and good shelf life.
8. Not accept addition or corrections.
9. The setting time usually 3 - 4 minutes.

We used ß-Ca sulfate and not used (α- Ca sulfate or) improved
stone due to:
1. It is weaker so, it will break during removal from undercut to avoid
2. It requires high w/p which increase the flow so record fine details.
3. High w/p will reduce exothermic heat. During impression taking.

1.It is used for full jaws impressions in completely edentulous patients.
2.Impression trays for double technique impression (selective pressure
3.It is used as peripheral seal materials.

Function Ingredient
Soften on heating and give the flow and cohesion. Natural resins and waxes

To give suitable consistency. Filler (Talc, soap stone or

To minimize shrinkage diatomaceous earth)
To decrease its adhesiveness to the oral tissues.

To make the compound less brittle. Plasticizers: Stearic acid, or

Rouge, reddish brown commonly used, and green are also Coloring agents:
Thermoplastic material; Supplied in the form of sheets, sticks or cones
of different sizes and colures.
Manipulation & setting reaction
These thermoplastic material,
they are used in warm water at 50-60 oc and when cooled to mouth
temperature it becomes hard at 37 o C.
The setting mechanism is reversible process rather than chemical
Fluidity: It has very low fluidity so not able to record all the fine details.
However, the reproduction can be improved by applying pressure and
or reheating
1.It has very low fluidity so not able to record
fine details.
2.Shrinkage occurs on cooling from mouth
temperature to room temperature. O.3% to
3.Not need a separating medium and can be
reused several times.
4.Accept addition or correction.
5.Non-toxic non-irritant, and can be
Zinc Oxide and Euginol Impression Material
Clinical Uses
1)Used for final impressions for completely
edentulous patients with minor undercuts.
2)It is used for stabilizing base plates in bite
3)It is available in the form of two paste system
base and catalyst usually supplied in two
collapsible tubes.
Two paste system base and catalyst usually supplied in two
collapsible tubes.

1. Oil of cloves contains 70-80 % eugenol sometimes used

instead of eugenol (It is less irritant).
2. Gum resin:
a) To improve coherent for the impression material.
b) To give thermoplastic properties and easy removal from
the cast by softening the impression in hot water.
Magnesium chloride acts as accelerator.
Oil linseed: act as plasticizers for fluidity and smoothness.
Moister: Very slight amount of water is added it is essential
for the hydrolysis of zinc oxide.
Two paste (base and catalyst)
Mix two equal lengths over a glass slab or over waxed
paper (special oil resistant paper ) until homogenous mix
is obtained.

Zinc oxide + eugenol water Zinc eugenol +Zinc oxide

(unreacted) + water
Setting time controlled by:
2)Addition of ethyl alcohol.
Used in close fitting acrylic special tray
with space 2-3 mm,
or used over impression compound ( wash

Can be disinfected by immersion in 2%
very accurate impression.
It has enough fluidity to record the fine details.
Dimensional stability
There is no or very little changes on setting, (setting shrinkage 0.15)
No change during storage, the only impression material which is
stable but at high temperature can make distortions due to presence
thermoplastic resins.
Elasticity: It is non elastic not used for undercuts areas
it is removed from the cast by using hot water at 60 o C for 5-10 minutes.
Adhesion to the tray: Adhere well to the tray.
Cast compatibility: Not need separating medium
Other properties:
It's irritant due to eugenol, giving tingling or burning sensation,
unpleasant taste for some patients, adhere to the tissues so the lips
usually coated with (Vaseline) before the impression
It is accelerated by incorporating one or two drop
of water or ethyl alcohol into the eugenol paste
before it is mixed.
Setting may be retarded by a drop or two of
Zinc oxide & eugenol solvent is oil of orange.
Disinfections: Can be disinfected by immersion in
2% glutraldehyde.
Elastic Impression Materials
(Reversible Hydrocolloid)

Agar had been replaced by rubber base impression

materials but is still used.
Clinical Uses:
Used for full- mouth impressions without deep
under cuts,
They can be used for crown and bridge because of
their high accuracy.
1. Agar (8-15%): Polysaccharide from seaweed.
2. Borax 6.2%: to strengthen the gel retarder for the setting of
3. Potassium sulfate 1% to 2%): to accelerate the setting of
4. Fillers: to control the strength, viscosity, and rigidity.
5. Antifungal: Alkyl benzoate.
6. Water (>80%) controls flow properties.
7. Thymol and glycerin: bactericidal and plasticizer.
Inexpensive, have no unpleasant odors, nontoxic,
and non-staining.
They do not require custom tray or adhesives don’t
require mixing, hydrophilic material.
1.It is need expensive equipment.
2.The surface of stone casts has weakened by
compositions containing borax.
3.Dimensionally unstable. (Syneresis and imbibitions).
4.Poor tear strength.
5.As a rule pouring the cast within one hour.

By immersion in solution of:
1. Sodiumhypochlorate,
2. lodophors,
3. phenolic glutraldehydes.
4. Glutraldehyde.

Alginate is the most widely used impression material in

They are used to take impressions for:

1.Partial dentures .
2.Primary impressions .
3.Occlusal analysis.
4.Orthodontics .
5.Crown, bridge and implant planning.
1.Potassium alginate, (main ingredient forms solution
with water and becomes cross linked to form gel)
2.Sodium phosphate,(retarder to control working time)
3.Calcium sulphate dihydrate, (reactor, source of Ca
ions which cause cross linking of alginate chains)
4.(Fillers, control stiffness, gel firmer, aids information of sol
by dispersing alginate powder particles)
5.Colouring and flavouring.
6.Chemical indicator:
Violent ,pink and white colors
Two main reactions occur when the powder reacts with water during
(1)The sodium phosphate reacts with. the calcium sulphate to provide
adequate working time
2) After the sodium phosphate has reacted the remaining calcium
sulphate reacts with the sodium alginate to form an insoluble calcium
alginate, which forms gel with the H2o

Na alginate + Caso4 Ca alginate + Na2 So4

Powder gel

(1)To avoid the inhalation problems of alginate dust, some materials had
introduced in a dust less version in which the powder coated with glycol
Some products contain a chemical disinfectant in the alginate
Studies have shown that test viruses have inactivated in
alginate in impressions by: -
(1) 10 minutes soak in 0.5% sodium hypochlorite.
(2) 20 minutes immersion in 2% glutraldehydes
diluted 1:4
(3) 20 minutes immersion in phenyl phenol diluted 1:3
Measurements of dimensional changes showed that immersion of
alginate impressions for 30 minutes did not affect their clinical
Clinical uses:
1. Polysulfide rubbers are widely used for crown and bridge
2. Useful for multiple impressions.
3. It is available in low, medium and high viscosities
supplied in tubes of base and catalyst paste which are mixed
Base : Contains 80% Polysulphide polymer.
Fillers: (Zinc oxide, titanium dioxide, zinc sulfide, and
silica) Varies from 12% to 50% (depending on the
light, regular or heavy)
(3) Plasticizers.(Di-N-butyl phthalate)
The catalyst Contains:
1. Lead dioxide 30%
2. Hydrated copper oxide or organic peroxide, as a catalyst.
3. Sulfur 0.5% as a promoter, (bad smell).
4. Dibutylphthalate or other non reactive oils 17% to form paste.
5. Inorganic fillers to adjust the consistency and reactivity.

Elastic recovery: 98% if removed rabidly.

Flow range 0.4% to 1.9%
Highest for light -bodied and least for heavy- bodied materials.
Flexibility: It is the most flexible rubbers
Its hydrophilic.
so the use of surface acting agents improve their wetting.
Tear strength: The highest resistance to tearing.
Two equal lengths of base and catalyst extruded & mixed
on a mixing pad with spatula
Mixing times: 45- to 60 seconds.
Working time: 5- 7 minutes. Increase by higher temperature and
Dimensional changes: 0.45% given for shrinkage after 24 h. less than
condensation silicones.
- :Advantage
1.Acceptable accuracy
2.High tear resistance.
3.They can silver plated.
1)Bad odder.
2)Permanent stain.
3)Must be poured within one hour.
4)Cannot be re poured.
Silicone Rubber( Condensation Curing)
Clinical uses
1.Mainly for crown and bridge impressions.
2.Ideal for single unit inlays.
Supplied as:
Two paste or paste and liquid catalyst systems
It is available in low, medium, high and very high consistency (Putty)
High molecular weight polydimethylsiloxane
.Orthoalkyl silicate for cross linking
Inorganic filler 30 to 40 % in putty type contain higher Percentage of Catalyst.
Metal organic ester. Such as tin actuate.
Thickening agent is used when making paste.
Orthoalkyl silicate and metal organic ester some times a catalyst
contain both.
Mechanical properties
Elastic recovery: 99% is excellent
Flow : is less then 0.1%
Flexibility: stiffer than Polysulphides.
Shrinkage in 24h. ranges 0.6%
it is greater than polysulfide or Polyether's due to evaporation
of the alcohol during the reaction.
Silicone putty after setting taking a second impression with light
bodied silicone.
Manipulation :
Silicone may be supplied as a base paste plus a liquid catalyst,
in this case one drop per inch is usually recommended.
Setting time: - 6-8minutes
Electroplating is possible
1.Clean and pleasant materials for the patient
2.Highly elastic
3.The use of putty wash system improves the accuracy.

1.It should pour within one hour.
2.They very hydrophobic require very dry field.
3. It is difficult to pour in stone.
Silicones Rubber (Addition Curing)

Represent an advance in accuracy

Clinical Use:
1. For crown and bridge impressions and denture manufacture..
2. Not used for routine study models due to high rigidity and
Silicone prepolymers with vinyl and hydrogen side groups
(Vinyl polydimethylsiloxane) prepolymers
Siloxane prepolymers + hydrogen side groups
A platinum catalyst (chloroplatinic acid)
Some manufacturers include hydrogen absorbers in their
formulation to eliminate the hydrogen gas , that can on
rare occasion produce porosity.
Addition silicones have much greater dimensional stability
than condensation silicone.
Some manufacturers include a retarder for extending the
working and setting times.

Working and setting times: faster than polysulfide

very low shrinkage 0.1-0.05 % in 24hours
Elasticity: Silicone rubbers are ideally more elastic
than polysalphide , the elastic recovery is 99.5% .
Rigidity: have greater rigidity, so it is difficult to
remove the impression around undercuts.
Flexibility : Less than polysalphide more than polyether .
Tear strength: less than Polysalphide.
The use of surface acting agent to improve the
wettability and also Its hydrophobic in nature
improve the quality of cast and dies which are
Are pleasant to handle
Palladium added to some products to absorb the hydrogen
and prevent bubbles forming on stone.
Die surfaces, if a product does not contain a hydrogen
absorber one hour should pass before pouring dies,
overnight before epoxy dies poured.
Automatic mixers that provide quick air bubble-free mix.
Can electroplated with silver and capper

1. Are highly accurate.
2. Have high dimensional stability after setting
3. Elastic recovery, excellent.
4. Does not stain.
Polyether Rubber

Clinical uses
Accurate impressions
of few prepared teeth
without severe undercuts
High stiffness.
short working time (5 minutes)
restricts their use to impressions of few teeth.
It is available in light consistency, regular and heavy
It is hydrophilic consequently so they can record an
accurate impression when it is difficult to achieve perfect
moisture control.

Base paste
low molecular weight : Polyether with
ethylene- amine terminal groups
Fillers such as colloidal silica
Aromatic sulfonic acid ester and thickening
agent to form a paste
setting mechanism (addition polymerization)
It is highly accurate.
Working time: short 2.5 minutes
Setting time: short 4.5 minutes
Flexibility: Low, its least flexible in all rubbers so very
difficulty in removal from the mouth
Thinners were available to increase the working time
without any significant loss of other physical or
mechanical properties
Shrinkage values 0.25% in 24 Hours
Elastic ity: it is viscoelastic 98.9%
Flow : very low ( the stiffness is high )
1-Polyethers is similar to that of Polysulphide and silicone
two equal lengths of base and catalyst paste are mixed
vigorously and rapidly (30 to 45 seconds) Also, an auto mixed
cartridge format.
2-Can be readily silver plated to produce accurate dies
3-Precautions should take to avoid contact of the catalyst with
the skin or mucosa because tissue reactions have observed
1.It is pleasant handling and ease mixing.
2.It is more accurate and fine detail reproduction.
3.Easily poured in stone.
4.Dimensionally stable for up to one week

1.High cost,
2.Short working and setting times
3. Rigidity:
When set this can make removal of impression very
difficult in undercut areas.
4. Distort if stored in water or high humidity
more than 10 minutes due to its hydrophilic nature.
5. Cannot left for long periods in disinfectant solutions.
6.Allergic reactions: due to sulphonic acid catalyst system
Immersion in sodium hypochlorite 10 minutes .
is unlikely to have a deleterious effect on the accuracy.
Addition Condensation
Polyether Silicone
Polysulfide Alginate Agar

2.5 2 –4.5 3 5–7 2.5 7 – 15
Time (min)

Setting Time
4.5 3–7 6–8 8 – 12 3.5 5

1 week Immediate Immediate 1 hour

1 week 1 hour Stability
kept dry pour pour 100% RH

Fair to
Good Fair Fair Excellent Excellent and

High to
Very high Moderate Low Very low Low Cost
very high
Addition Condensation
Polyether Silicone
Polysulfide Alginate Agar

98.3 – 99.0 99 – 99.9 98.2 – 99.6 94.5 – 96.9 97.3 98.8
Recovery (%)

1.9 – 3.3 1.3 – 5.6 3.5 – 7.8 8.5 – 20.0 12 11

< 0.05 < 0.05 < 0.10 0.4 – 1.9 -- -- Flow (%)

Shrinkage, 24
0.2 – 0.3 0.01 – 0.2 0.2 – 1.0 0.4 – 0.5 Extreme Extreme
hours (%)

1700 - 1640 – 380 – Tear Strength

2280 – 4370 2240 – 7410 700
4800 5260 700 (g/cm)
Properties of various impression materials
agar alginate polyether Addition Condensation polysulfide Properties
silicone silicone

11 12 3 4 5 7 % Flexibility
98.8 97.5 98.5 99.8 99.5 97.9 % Elastic recovery

poor poor good good good good Tear resistance

----- ------- 0.02-0.05 0.01-0.04 0.08-0.14 0.5-2 % Flow

poor poor good good fair fair Relative stability

----- --------- 0.24 0.27 0.45-0.6 0.45 % Shrinkage

.min 5 .min 6-8 .min 6-8 .More than 10min Setting time

excellent excellent good Poor/good poor poor wettability

715 350/700 3000 3000 3000 4000 Tear strength

----- ------- 1-2 0.05-0.3 1-3 3-5 Permanent
deformation %e
Thank You