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Prepared by
Macherla Venkateswara Rao

 Necessity of water quality

 Sources of water
 Characteristics of water
 Methods of water treatment
Necessity of Water quality Enhancement

 Water is one of the most abundant compound found in nature and it is

essential component to all life. Without water there can be no life.
 Water is used in almost all activities like Domestic, Industrial,
Agricultural, Recreational etc.,

 To supply water safe in quality and adequate in quantity to the population.

Attributes of Drinking water

 Aesthetic : Free from colour, taste, odour and turbidity

 Safety : Bacteriological – Free from pathogens
 Chemical : Free from toxicants – Heavy metals.
 Main objective of water should be in potable and palatable.
Sources of Water

The various sources of water can be classified into two categories:

Surface sources,
 Ponds and lakes
 Streams and rivers
 Storage reservoirs
Sub-surface sources or underground sources, such as
 Springs
 Infiltration wells and
 Tube-wells.
Physical Characteristics

 Raw water can analysed by testing their Physical, Chemical, and

Biological parameters.
 The characteristics of water that respond to senses of sight, touch, feel,
smell and taste.
 Temperature : 10°C to 20°C
 Colour : 5 to 20 True colour units
 Odour & Taste : Threshold odour number < 3
 Turbidity : 5 to 10 Nephelometric turbidity units
Chemical characteristics

 By conducting Laboratory tests the chemical parameters are analysed.

 Solids : Residue left after evaporation
 Total solids
 Suspended solids
 Dissolved solids.

 pH : Potential of Hydrogen ion concentration (6.5 to 8)

 Acidity : Ability of water to neutralize the base ( ≤ 50 mg/L as CaCO 3)
 Alkalinity: Ability of water to neutralize the acid(< 200 mg/L as
CaCO3 )
 Hardness: Measure divalent metallic cationic substances (< 300 mg/L as
Biological characteristics

 Water is examined to detect the microorganisms.

 Detection and removal of pathogens from water is very essential
before water supplied to public.
 Qualitative tests
 Plate count method
 Membrane filtration technique

 Quantitative tests
 E.coli test
 MPN method
Water treatment methods

 Treatment of water depends upon

 Raw water quality
 Beneficiary use
 General treatment methods are
 Plain sedimentation : Remove suspended particles
 Coagulation : Remove colloidal particles
 Filtration : Remove dissolved substances
 Disinfection : Remove pathogens
Schematic representation
Thank You