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Consumer Behavior
Roger D. Blackwell
Paul W. Miniard
James F. Engel

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CHAPTER 16

Helping Consumers to
Remember

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Helping Consumers Remember

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Helping Consumers Remember
Failing to remember is a common
occurrence in consumer behavior
Such memory failures in the
context of product purchase and
consumption translates into lost
sales and profits
Consumers’ ability to remember
also plays a role in advertising
effectiveness

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Helping Consumers Remember
Advertising’s long-term effects
may depend on consumer memory
Advertising may focus on
activating consumers’ memory of
past consumption experiences
Consumer memory is also an
important part of nostalgia
advertising appeals which evoke
favorable memories of the past

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Helping Consumers Remember
Remembering consists of:
Cognitive learning: getting information
into memory
Retrieval: getting it back out

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Cognitive Learning: Rehearsal
Cognitive learning occurs when
information processed in short-
term memory is stored in long-
term memory

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Cognitive Learning: Rehearsal
Cognitive learning occurs when
information processed in short-
term memory is stored in long-
term memory
Rehearsal involves the mental
repetition of information or, the
recycling of information through
short-term memory
Rehearsal may be described as a
form of inner speech
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Cognitive Learning: Rehearsal
Rehearsal serves two functions:
Helps maintain information in short-
term memory
Aids in the transfer of information in
short-term memory to long-term
memory

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Cognitive Learning: Rehearsal
Rehearsal serves two functions:
Helps maintain information in short-
term memory
Aids in the transfer of information in
short-term memory to long-term
memory
Greater rehearsal increases the
strength of long-term memory
trace, thereby enhancing the
likelihood that trace can later be
retrieved
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Cognitive Learning: Elaboration
Elaboration: the degree of
integration between the stimulus
and existing knowledge

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Cognitive Learning: Elaboration
Elaboration: the degree of
integration between the stimulus
and existing knowledge
At low levels of elaboration,
stimuli are processed in much the
same way they are encountered
At greater levels of elaboration,
more links between the new
information and information
stored in memory are created
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Elaboration
Using low level of elaboration to
remember a license plate number

A J N 2 6 8
Using greater level of elaboration
to remember the same license
plate number

JAN 16
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Cognitive Learning: Elaboration
Motivation plays a role in the
amount of elaboration a person
employs to remember
Intentional learning
Incidental learning

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Cognitive Learning: Elaboration
Motivation plays a role in the
amount of elaboration a person
employs to remember
Intentional learning
Incidental learning
Knowledge allows more
meaningful elaboration
Ability to learn depends on both
individual and environmental
factors
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Cognitive Learning: Mental
Representations
Mental representations: the
particular manner in which
information is stored in long-term
memory

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Cognitive Learning: Mental
Representations
Mental representations: the
particular manner in which
information is stored in long-term
memory
Stimuli may be stored in same
form in which they appear, or
transformed (the price of a dress
may be remembered as $200 or
expensive)
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Cognitive Learning: Mental
Representations
Dual coding proposes that
information can be stored in both
semantic and visual forms

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Using Mental Representations
To Increase Learning

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Cognitive Learning: Mental
Representations
Dual coding proposes that
information can be stored in both
semantic and visual forms
Having multiple representations
increases the number of possible
mental pathways that can be
traveled when trying to remember

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Cognitive Learning: Mental
Representations
Associative network: memory
nodes containing bits of
information are linked to other
memory nodes in a series of
hierarchical networks

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An Associative Network for Disney (partial)

Magic
Located in Kingdom
Orlando Disney

Epcot Walt Disney Parks


World Resort

Animal Great
Kingdom Fun

MGM Studios
Expensive

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Retrieval
Retrieval: the activation of
information stored in long-term
memory that is then transferred
into short-term memory
The cycle of remembering

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The Cycle of Remembering

Short-term
Memory

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The Cycle of Remembering

Learning

Short-term Long-term
Memory Memory

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The Cycle of Remembering

Learning

Short-term Long-term
Memory Memory

Retrieval

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Retrieval
Successful retrieval depends on:
Strength of memory trace of the to-be-
remembered information
The number and strength of linkages
between the to-be-remembered item
and other memory nodes
Spreading activation: activating one
memory node creates a ripple effect
that spreads throughout its linkages to
other nodes

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Retrieval
Retrieval can be enhanced by
retrieval cues: stimuli that activate
information in memory relevant to
the to-be-remembered information

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Retrieval: Forgetting
Forgetting: the failure to retrieve
something from memory
Decay theory: memories grow
weaker with the passage of time

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Retrieval: Forgetting
Even when memory trace is
strong, people forget things
because not all information in
long-term memory can be
retrieved at one point in time
If retrieval fails, sometimes
information will “pop” into our
minds later

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Retrieval: Forgetting
Failure to retrieve something
which has not faded from memory
is attributable to interference
Interference theory: the chances
of retrieving a particular piece of
information become smaller as
interference from other
information becomes larger
Clutter of advertising may also
interfere with retrieval
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Retrieval: Recognition and Recall
Retrieval also depends on whether
the information requires recall and
recognition

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Retrieval: Recognition and Recall
Retrieval also depends on whether
the information requires recall and
recognition
Recognition requires identifying
something as familiar because
we’ve seen it before
With brand or ad recognition
measures, the to-be-remembered
information is provided

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Retrieval: Recognition and Recall
Recall is more cognitively
demanding than recognition
Unaided (free) recall does not
contain any retrieval cues
Aided (cued) recall provides cues
to help someone remember
Consumers remember more when
they answer aided rather than
unaided recall measures
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Retrieval: Product Awareness
When consumers use internal
search to form their consideration
sets, they must recall brand names
from memory
Brand recognition, in this instance,
is not as important as brand recall

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Retrieval: Product Awareness
When consumers use internal
search to form their consideration
sets, they must recall brand names
from memory
Brand recognition, in this instance,
is not as important as brand recall
Sometimes consideration sets are
formed at the point of purchase
In this case, product awareness in
the form of recognition is vital
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Retrieval: Product Awareness
Brand recognition focuses on
more than just the name
Showing the packaging in an ad
helps recognition when in the
store

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Retrieval: Advertising Awareness
Many companies focus on what
consumers remember about their
advertising messages, rather than
on how many remember seeing it

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Retrieval: Advertising Awareness
Companies should focus on what
consumers remember about their
advertising messages
Do they remember the advertised
brand?
Day-after recall (DAR): measures
brand recall 24 hours after ad
exposure
What do they remember about the ad
claims?
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Retrieval: Advertising Awareness
Why should companies focus on
what consumers remember about
their advertising messages?
If consumers don’t remember the
brand, then the other things they do
remember will not be linked to the
brand in memory
If consumers are confused about
which brand was in the ad, they might
link the ad claims to another brand

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How Companies Can Help
Consumers to Remember

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How Companies Can Help
Consumers to Remember
Get More Attention

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How Companies Can Help
Consumers to Remember
Get More Attention
The more attention given to a
stimulus, the greater the chances of
being remembered
There are a number of ways
companies can enhance consumers’
attention to their messages
Pleasant ambient scents enhance
brand recall and recognition

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How Companies Can Help
Consumers to Remember
Reminders

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How Companies Can Help
Consumers to Remember
Reminders
Advertising that reminds consumers
to buy a product
Postcards reminding consumers to
make an appointment
Retrieval cues placed on packaging
and at the point of purchase to
enhance ad effectiveness

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How Companies Can Help
Consumers to Remember
Reminders
Free stickers help consumers
remember the company’s information
Free products act as mini-billboards
and build goodwill
The Internet is useful for delivering
reminders and making
recommendations to consumers

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Helping Consumers to
Remember with Reminders

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How Companies Can Help
Consumers to Remember
Use Retrieval Cues

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How Companies Can Help
Consumers to Remember
Use Retrieval Cues
Retrieval cues activate relevant
product information in memory at
the point of purchase
Retrieval cues also help to link the
favorable feelings generated by an
ad to the product
Different types of retrieval cues may
be most effective depending on the
language of communication
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Helping Consumers to
Remember with Retrieval Cues

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How Companies Can Help
Consumers to Remember
Repetition

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How Companies Can Help
Consumers to Remember
Repetition
Companies rely on repetition
(showing ads over and over again) to
enhance rehearsal of the ad
Learning plateaus after a certain
number of repetitions, and negative
responses may result from seeing an
ad too often
Repetition may be used within an ad

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How Companies Can Help
Consumers to Remember
Encourage Elaboration

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How Companies Can Help
Consumers to Remember
Encourage Elaboration
Self-referencing: involves relating a
stimulus to one’s own self and
experiences
The number and strength of potential
linkages between new and stored
information are enhanced
Research supports the potential for
encouraging self referencing through
advertising copy
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How Companies Can Help
Consumers to Remember
Encourage Multiple
Representations in Memory

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How Companies Can Help
Consumers to Remember
Encourage Multiple
Representations in Memory
If ad copy fails to evoke imagery, then
including pictures in the ad will
enhance the formation of visual
representations and improve retrieval

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How Companies Can Help
Consumers to Remember
Encourage Multiple
Representations in Memory
If ad copy fails to evoke imagery, then
including pictures in the ad will
enhance the formation of visual
representations and improve retrieval
Visual representation of a brand name
can increase its memorability

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Visual Representations Can
Increase Memorability of Brands

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Visual Representations Can
Increase Memorability of Brands

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How Companies Can Help
Consumers to Remember
The Importance of Consistency

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How Companies Can Help
Consumers to Remember
The Importance of Consistency
An ad may convey the same meaning
through the brand name, copy, and
picture if they are presented in similar
ways
Consistency facilitates remembering
When the ad copy conveys the same
meaning as the name and picture,
brand name recall is improved

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How Companies Can Help
Consumers to Remember
Use Easy-to-Remember Stimuli

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How Companies Can Help
Consumers to Remember
Use Easy-to-Remember Stimuli
Concrete words (such as dog or tree)
can be visualized rather easily
Abstract words (such as equality) are
more difficult to represent visually
Concrete brand names will be more
easily remembered than abstract
brand names

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How Companies Can Help
Consumers to Remember
Use Easy-to-Remember Stimuli
Brand name suggestiveness: the
degree to which the brand name
conveys a brand attribute
Suggestive brand names can enhance
recall of ad claims that pertain to the
same attribute suggested by the
brand name

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How Companies Can Help
Consumers to Remember
Use Easy-to-Remember Stimuli
Distinctive stimuli are easier to
remember because they stand out and
are less susceptible to interference
Distinctive brand names and products
are more memorable

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How Companies Can Help
Consumers to Remember
Use Closure
Closure refers to the tendency to
develop a complete picture or
perception when elements in the
perceptual field are missing
The drive to “fill in” the missing parts
increases the amount of thinking
consumers undertake during stimulus
processing, thus enhancing memory

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The Use of Closure Can
Increase Brand Memory

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How Companies Can Help
Consumers to Remember
Put Consumers in a Good Mood

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How Companies Can Help
Consumers to Remember
Put Consumers in a Good Mood
Mood influences retrieval
The favorableness of retrieved
memories depends on whether mood
is positive or negative
Positive moods increase the chances
of remembering favorable information
Ads may use humor or music to
influence mood
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How Companies Can Help
Consumers to Remember
Products That Help Consumer
Remember

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How Companies Can Help
Consumers to Remember
Products That Help Consumer
Remember
A number of products claim their
consumption will improve memory

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This Product Promises to
Improve Consumers’ Memory

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How Companies Can Help
Consumers to Remember
Products That Help Consumer
Remember
A number of products claim their
consumption will improve memory
Products can be designed to evoke
favorable memories or create and
record important memories

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Products Designed to Evoke
Favorable Memories

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