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MATHEMATICAL

REASONING
CHINO C. PIJO
COURSE INSTRUCTOR
Let’s start with this!

What is a
statement?
STATEMENT
A statement is a
sentence which is
either true or false,
but not both
simultaneously.
No sentence can be called a statement if
1. It is an exclamation
2. It is an order or request
3. It is a question
4. It involves variable time such as ‘today’,
‘tomorrow’, ‘yesterday’ etc.
5. It involves variable places such as ‘here’,
‘there’, ‘everywhere’ etc.
6. It involves pronouns such as ‘she’, ‘he’,
‘they’ etc.
EXAMPLE OF A STATEMENT

1.New Delhi is in
India. (T)
2.Every rectangle is a
square. (F)
NOT A STATEMENT

1. Close the
door.
2. How old are
you?
SIMPLE STATEMENTS
1. 2 is an even
number.
2. A square has 4
equal sides.
COMPOUND STATEMENT

Maria is beautiful
while Joan is helpful.
COMPONENT
STATEMENTS
-simple statements that
constitutes a compound
statements
11 is both an odd and
prime number.
a. 11 is an odd number.
b. 11 is a prime number.
PROPOSITIONAL
CALCULUS
PROPOSITION
A complete declarative
sentence that is either
true or false, but not both.

PROPOSITION VS STATEMENT
PROPOSITION
If a proposition “p” is true,
its truth value is true,
denoted by “T.” If it is false,
its truth value is false,
denoted by “F.”
CONNECTIVES
AND
COMPOUND
PROPOSITIONS
PROPOSITIONAL CONNECTIVE
An operation that combines
two propositions to yield a
new one whose truth value
depends only on the truth
values of the two original
propositions.
COMPOUND PROPOSITION
Propositions build up
by combining
propositions using
propositional
connectives.
PROPOSITIONAL CONNECTIVES

a. Conjunction (∧)
b. Disjunction (∨)
c. Exclusive (ө)
d. Implication (→)
e. Biconditional (↔)
PROPOSITIONAL CONNECTIVES
TRUTH TABLE
p q p∧q p∨q pө q p→q p↔q
T T T T F T T
T F F T T F F
F T F T T T F
F F F F F T T
NOTE
The connective ∨ is a
symbol for or in the
inclusive sense of “and/or”
while ө is a symbol for or
in the exclusive sense of
“either but not both.”
Let p and q be the propositions
“Today is Friday” and “It is
raining today,” respectively.

p : Today is friday.

q : It is raining today.
p : Today is friday.
q : It is raining today.
Find
a. p∧q
b. p∨q
c. p→q
d. p↔q
p : Today is Friday.
q : It is raining today.
Find
a. p∧q
p ∧ q : Today is Friday and it is
raining today.
p : Today is Friday.
q : It is raining today.
Find
a. p ∨ q
p ∨ q : Today is Friday or it is
raining today.
p : Today is Friday.
q : It is raining today.
Find
a. p → q
p → q : If today is Friday, then it
is raining today.
p : Today is Friday.
q : It is raining today.
Find
a. p ↔ q
p ↔ q : Today is Friday if and
only if it is raining today.
NEGATION
CONNECTIVE
NEGATION
An assertion that a statement fails or
denial of a statement is called the
negation of the statement. The
negation of a statement is generally
formed by introducing the word “not”
at some proper place in the statement
or by prefixing the statement with “It is
not the case that” or It is false that”.
NEGATION CONNECTIVE
If p is a proposition, the expression ¬p
or ~p is defined as a new proposition with
the following truth table:
p ¬p
T F
F T
NEGATION CONNECTIVE
Find the negation of the proposition
“Today is Friday.”
a. It is not the case that today is
Friday.
or simply
b. Today is not Friday.
IMPLICATIONS
IMPLICATION
In an implication of the form
p → q, the proposition p is
called hypothesis (or
antecedent) and the proposition
q is called the conclusion (or
the consequence).
IMPLICATION
The proposition q → p is called
the converse of p → q; and
¬p → ¬q is called the inverse of
p → q; and ¬q → ¬p is called the
contrapositive of p → q. An
implication is always logically
equivalent to its own
contrapositive.
If today is Friday, then it is
raining today. (p → q)
Converse: (q → p)
If it is raining today, then today
is Friday.
Contrapositive: (¬q → ¬p)
If it is not raining today, then
today is not Friday.
If my car is in the shop, then I
cannot go to the market. (p → q)
Converse: (q → p)
If I cannot go to the market, then
my car is in the shop.
Contrapositive: (¬q → ¬p)
If I can go to the market, then
my car is not in the shop.
p: Three is an even number.
q: Ten is a positive integer.
a. p∧q f. ¬q → ¬p
b. p∨q g. ¬p → ¬q
c. p→q
d. p↔q
e. q→p
p: Three is an even number. (F)
q: Ten is a positive integer. (T)
a. p∧q
Three is an even number
and ten is a positive integer.
(F)
p: Three is an even number. (F)
q: Ten is a positive integer. (T)
a. p ∨ q
Three is an even number or
ten is a positive integer. (T)
p: Three is an even number. (F)
q: Ten is a positive integer. (T)
a. p → q
If three is an even number
then ten is a positive
integer. (T)
p: Three is an even number. (F)
q: Ten is a positive integer. (T)
a. p ↔ q
Three is an even number if
and only if ten is a positive
integer. (F)
p: Three is an even number.
q: Ten is a positive integer.
a. q→p (Converse of p→q)
If ten is a positive integer,
then three is an even
number.
p: Three is an even number.
q: Ten is a positive integer.
a. ¬q → ¬p (Contrapositive)
If ten is not a positive
integer, then three is not an
even number.
p: Three is an even number.
q: Ten is a positive integer.
a. ¬p → ¬q (Inverse)
If three is not an even
number, then ten is not a
positive integer.
GOOD DAY!