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LINEAR

PROGRAMMING
GRAPHICAL METHOD
DEFINITION

• Linear Programming is planning by the use of linear relationships of


variables involved. It makes use of certain mathematical techniques to
get the best possible solution to a problem involving limited resources.
A MINIMIZATION OR MAXIMIZATION PROBLEM CAN
BE CLASSIFIED AS LINEAR PROGRAMMING IF IT HAS THE
FOLLOWING PROPERTIES:

• The objective of the decision maker must be either to maximize or to


minimize.
• The actions of the decision maker must be constrained and the
decision variables must not violate the limitations or constraints.
• All variables have a value greater than or equal to 0.
• The relationship of variables could be expressed in terms of equations
or inequalities.
THE GRAPHICAL METHOD

• Optimum Solution – is a solution that makes the objective function as


large as possible in the case of maximization process, and as small as
possible in the case of minimization process.
•  
• Feasible Solution – the set of all points in the graph satisfying the
constraints and these are located in the feasible region.
TWO MAIN PARTS OF A LINEAR
PROGRAM
• Objective Function – is an algebraic expression introduced by the
word “maximize” or “minimize”.
• Constraints are introduced by the “subject to”. These algebraic
sentences in the constraints are expressed in equations or inequalities.
There are two parts of the constraints: explicit and implicit.
• Explicit constraints are conditions of the problems that are to be
expressed in mathematical sentences.
• Implicit constraints are those that are implied.
STEPS TO FOLLOW IN USING THE GRAPHICAL METHOD

• Represent the unknown in the problem.


• Tabulate the data about the unknown (if necessary)
• Formulate the objective function and constraints.
• Graph the constraints, and always solve for the coordinates at the point of
intersection of lines.
• Substitute the coordinates at the vertices of the feasible region in the objective
function.
• Formulate your decision by selecting the highest value of the objective if it is
maximization and the lowest value if it is minimization.
EXAMPLE 1

• The Margan Furniture makes two products: tables and chairs, which
must be processed through assembly and finishing departments.
Assembly department is available for 60 hours in every production
period, while the finishing department is available for 48 hours of work.
Manufacturing one table requires 4 hours in the assembly and 2 hours
in the finishing. Each chair requires 2 hours in the assembly and 4
hours in the finishing. One table contributes P180 to profit, while a
chair contributes P100. The problem is to determine the number of
tables and chairs to make per production period in order to maximize
the profit.
SOLUTION

• I. Decision Variables
• Let x be the number of pieces of tables
• y be the number of pieces of chairs
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CONTINUATION
CONTINUATION
CONTINUATION
CONTINUATION
CONTINUATION
CONTINUATION
CONTINUATION
CONTINUATION
CONCLUSION
EXAMPLE 2

• A small generator burns two types of fuel: low sulfur and high sulfur to produce
electricity. For one hour, each gallon of low sulfur emits 3 units of sulfur
dioxide, generates 4 kilowatts of electricity and cost P160. Each gallon of high
sulfur emits 5 unit of sulfur dioxide, generates 4 kilowatts and cost P150. The
Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) insists that the maximum amount of
sulfur dioxide that can be emitted per hour is 15 units. Suppose at least 16
kilowatts must be generated per hour, how many gallons of high sulfur and low
sulfur must be utilized per hour in order to minimize the cost of fuel?
•  
SOLUTION
CONTINUATION
CONTINUATION
CONCLUSION
EXERCISES

• 1. The GEM maker of jewelry makes two bracelet designs, heart design and flower design. The
bracelets are made of gold and platinum. The store has 28 ounces of gold and 20 ounces of
platinum. Each heart design bracelet requires 3 ounces of gold and 2.5 ounces of platinum and
makes a profit of P2500, while each flower design bracelet requires 4.5 ounces of gold and 3 ounces
of platinum and makes a profit of P3400. How many hear design bracelets and flower design
bracelets should be produced to maximize the profit?
•  
• 2. Two machines, A and B produce items at the rate of 50 per hour and 40 per hour, respectively.
Under a certain production plan, the total number of items needed is at least 1000 items, and the
total number of man-hours available for running the machines is at most 24 hours. If the hourly is
P100 for running machine A and P70 for machine B, determine the equation that will yield the most
economical production program.
MARAMING SALAMAT PO!

• Be safe with God’s grace!