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SystemsAnalysisandDesignWithUML3.

AnObject-OrientedApproach, ThirdEdition

Alan Dennis, Barbara Wixom, and David Tegarden


© 2010
John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Instructors:

KayMarlinaKamaruddin

MousaI. Sweidan

PowerPoint Presentation for Dennis, Wixom, & Tegarden Systems Analysis and Design with UML, 3rd Edition
Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. 1
Chapter 5:
Use Case Diagrams

PowerPoint Presentation for Dennis, Wixom, & Tegarden Systems Analysis and Design with UML, 3rd Edition
Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.
Objectives
• Understand the rules and style guidelines
for activity diagrams.
• Understand the rules and style guidelines
for use cases and use-case diagrams.
• Understand the process used to create use
cases and use-case diagrams
• Be able to create functional models using
activity diagrams, use cases, and use-case
diagrams.

PowerPoint Presentation for Dennis, Wixom, & Tegarden Systems Analysis and Design with UML, 3rd Edition
Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.
BUSINESS PROCESS
MODELING WITH
ACTIVITY DIAGRAMS
PowerPoint Presentation for Dennis, Wixom, & Tegarden Systems Analysis and Design with UML, 3rd Edition
Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.
Business Process Modeling
• Business process models describe the
activities that collectively support a
business process
• A very powerful tool for
communicating the analyst’s current
understanding of the requirements
with the user
• Activity diagrams are used to model
the behavior in a business process
PowerPoint Presentation for Dennis, Wixom, & Tegarden Systems Analysis and Design with UML, 3rd Edition
Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.
Activity Diagram Syntax
• Action or Activity
– Represents action or set of
actions
• Control Flow
– Shows sequence of execution
• Initial Node
– The beginning of a set of actions
• Final Node
– Stops all flows in an activity
• Decision Node
– Represents a test condition

PowerPoint Presentation for Dennis, Wixom, & Tegarden Systems Analysis and Design with UML, 3rd Edition
Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.
Sample Activity Diagram

PowerPoint Presentation for Dennis, Wixom, & Tegarden Systems Analysis and Design with UML, 3rd Edition
Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.
Partitions (Swimlanes)
• The contents of an activity diagram may be organized into
partitions using solid vertical lines. A partition does not have a
formal semantic interpretation, but is in business modeling often
used to represent an organizational unit of some kind.
• Only used to simplify the understanding of an activity diagram.

PowerPoint Presentation for Dennis, Wixom, & Tegarden Systems Analysis and Design with UML, 3rd Edition
Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. Slide 8
Fork and Join
• Rather than alternative path such as in Decision and
Emerge Point. Fork and Join bar shows parallel path that
can be happen in the same time.

PowerPoint Presentation for Dennis, Wixom, & Tegarden Systems Analysis and Design with UML, 3rd Edition
Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. Slide 9
Guidelines for Activity
Diagrams
1. Set the scope of the activity being modeled
2. Identify the activities, control flows, and
object flows that occur between the
activities
3. Identify any decisions that are part of the
process being modeled
4. Identify potential parallelism in the process
5. Draw the activity diagram

PowerPoint Presentation for Dennis, Wixom, & Tegarden Systems Analysis and Design with UML, 3rd Edition
Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.
USE-CASE DESCRIPTIONS

PowerPoint Presentation for Dennis, Wixom, & Tegarden Systems Analysis and Design with UML, 3rd Edition
Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.
Use Cases
• A use case illustrates the activities that are
performed by users of a system.
• Describe basic functions of the system
– What the user can do
– How the system responds
• Use cases are building blocks for continued
design activities.

PowerPoint Presentation for Dennis, Wixom, & Tegarden Systems Analysis and Design with UML, 3rd Edition
Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.
Types of Use Cases

PowerPoint Presentation for Dennis, Wixom, & Tegarden Systems Analysis and Design with UML, 3rd Edition
Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.
Use Case Elements:
Overview
• Name
• ID Number
• Type
• Primary Actor
• Brief Description
• Importance Level
• Stakeholder(s)
• Trigger(s)
PowerPoint Presentation for Dennis, Wixom, & Tegarden Systems Analysis and Design with UML, 3rd Edition
Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.
Use Case Elements:
Relationships
• Association
documents the communication between the use case
and the actors that use the use case
• Extend
represents the extension of the functionality of the use
case to incorporate optional behavior
• Include
shows the mandatory inclusion of another use case
• Generalization
allows use cases to support inheritance

PowerPoint Presentation for Dennis, Wixom, & Tegarden Systems Analysis and Design with UML, 3rd Edition
Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.
Use Case Elements: Flows
• Normal Flows
include only those steps that normally
are executed in a use case
• Sub-Flows
the normal flow of events decomposed
to keep the normal flow of events as
simple as possible
• Alternate or Exceptional Flows
flows that do happen but are not
considered to be the norm
PowerPoint Presentation for Dennis, Wixom, & Tegarden Systems Analysis and Design with UML, 3rd Edition
Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.
Use Case Writing Guidelines
1. Write in the form of subject-verb-direct object
2. Make sure it is clear who the initiator of the step is
3. Write from independent observer’s perspective
4. Write at about the same level of abstraction
5. Ensure the use case has a sensible set of steps
6. Apply the KISS principle liberally.
7. Write repeating instructions after the set of steps to be
repeated

PowerPoint Presentation for Dennis, Wixom, & Tegarden Systems Analysis and Design with UML, 3rd Edition
Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.
USE-CASE DIAGRAMS

PowerPoint Presentation for Dennis, Wixom, & Tegarden Systems Analysis and Design with UML, 3rd Edition
Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.
Use Case Diagram Syntax
• Actor
– person or system that derives
benefit from and is external to
the subject
• Use Case
– Represents a major piece of
system functionality
• Association Relationship <<includes>>

• Include Relationship <<extends>>

• Extend Relationship
• Generalization Relationship
PowerPoint Presentation for Dennis, Wixom, & Tegarden Systems Analysis and Design with UML, 3rd Edition
Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.
Sample Use Case

PowerPoint Presentation for Dennis, Wixom, & Tegarden Systems Analysis and Design with UML, 3rd Edition
Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.
CREATING USE-CASE
DESCRIPTIONS
AND USE-CASE DIAGRAMS
PowerPoint Presentation for Dennis, Wixom, & Tegarden Systems Analysis and Design with UML, 3rd Edition
Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.
Identify the Major Use Cases
1. Review the activity diagram
2. Find the subject’s boundaries
3. Identify the primary actors and their
goals
4. Identify and write the overviews of
the major use cases for the above
5. Carefully review the current use
cases. Revise as needed
PowerPoint Presentation for Dennis, Wixom, & Tegarden Systems Analysis and Design with UML, 3rd Edition
Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.
Extend the Major Use Cases
6.Choose one of the use cases to expand
7.Start filling in the details of the chosen use case
8.Write the normal flow of events of the use case
9.If the normal flow of events is too complex or long,
decompose into sub flows
10.List the possible alternate or exceptional flows
11.For each alternate or exceptional flow, list how the actor
and/or system should react

PowerPoint Presentation for Dennis, Wixom, & Tegarden Systems Analysis and Design with UML, 3rd Edition
Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.
Confirm the Major Use
Cases
12.Carefully review the current set of
use cases. Revise as needed
13.Start at the top again

PowerPoint Presentation for Dennis, Wixom, & Tegarden Systems Analysis and Design with UML, 3rd Edition
Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.
Create the Use Case
Diagram
1. Draw the subject boundary
2. Place the use cases on the diagram
3. Place the actors on the diagram
4. Draw the associations

PowerPoint Presentation for Dennis, Wixom, & Tegarden Systems Analysis and Design with UML, 3rd Edition
Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.
REFINING PROJECT SIZE AND
EFFORT
ESTIMATION USING USE-
CASE POINTS
PowerPoint Presentation for Dennis, Wixom, & Tegarden Systems Analysis and Design with UML, 3rd Edition
Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.
Summary
• Business Process Modeling with
Activity Diagrams
• Use-Case Descriptions
• Use-Case Diagrams

PowerPoint Presentation for Dennis, Wixom, & Tegarden Systems Analysis and Design with UML, 3rd Edition
Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.