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ADMINISTERING,SCORING

AND REPORTING A TEST

MANALI H SOLANKI
F.Y. M.SC. NURSING
J G COLLEGE OF
NURSING
TERMINOLOGY

Analysis: The examination and


evaluation of the relevant information
to select the best course of action
from among various alternatives.

Test: A procedure for critical


evaluation; a means of determining
the presence, quality, or truth of
something.
Scoring:It means to evaluate
and assign a grade.

Report: A document containing


information organized in a
narrative, graphic, or tabular form,
prepared on ad hoc, periodic,
recurring, regular, or as required
basis.
INTRODUCTION:

Administering the written test is


perhaps the most important
aspect of the examining process.
The atmosphere the test
administrator creates in the test
room and the attitude the test
administrator displays in
performing his/her duties is
extremely important
The test administrator's
manner, bearing, and attitude
may well inspire confidence in
competitors and put them at
ease while participating in the
testing process.
ADMINISTERING A TEST:

A teacher's test administration


procedures can have great impact
on student test performance.

 Before the test


 After Distributing Test Papers
 During the Test
 After the Test
TYPES OF SCORE
Raw Scores :

A Raw Score is simply the


number of questions a student
answers correctly for a test.
Uses:
A raw score provides an
indication of the variability in
performance among students
in a classroom.
Limitations:
A raw score by itself has no
meaning. It can be interpreted
only by comparing it with some
standard such as total number of
items for a test or with raw scores
earned by a comparison group.
Percentile Rank
A percentile is a measure
that tells us what percent of
the total frequency scored at
or below that measure. A
percentile rank is the
percentage of scores that fall
at or below a given score.
Advantages:
Lay people easily
understand them

Easy to interpret
Limitations:
Percentile differences are
not equal
Stanine (Standard nine)
Standard nine) : Stanine
scores express test results in
equal steps that range from 1
(lowest) to 9 (highest). The
average is a score of 5. In
general, stanine scores 1,2 & 3
are below average, 4,5 & 6 are
average and 7, 8 & 9 are above
average
Standard Scores
The standard scores indicate a
student’s relative position in a
group. It expresses test
performance in terms of standard
deviation units from the mean
The mean is the arithmetical
average. The standard
deviation is a measure of the
spread of scores in a group.
Types of standard Scores

Z – Score
If a mean and standard
deviation can be calculated for
a given set of raw scores, each
raw scores can be expressed in
terms of its distance from the
mean in standard deviation
units or z – scores.
 Z – Score =
Raw Score –Mean/Standard
deviation

Note: Z – score is always minus


maller
when the raw score is s than the mean.
T Scores:
any set of normally distributed
standard scores that has a
mean of 50 and SD of 10.
Multiplying the z – score by 10
and adding the product to 50 can
obtain T Scores.
Advantages
only positive integers are
provided


Interpretation is relatively
simple once the concept of T –
Score is grasped.
GRADING
Grading refers to the process
of using symbols, such as
letter to indicate various types
of students progress (Nitko
2001).
Common Methods of
Grading :
Letter grades :
There is a great flexibility in
the number of grades that can
be adopted i.e. 3 – 11.
Limitations:

Meaning of grades may


vary widely

Do not describe


strengths/weakness of
students
Strengths:
Easy to use

Easy to
interpret
theoretically

Provide a
Number/Percentage grades

(5, 3, 2, 1, 0) or (98%, 80%, 60%


etc.)
It is same as letter grades.Only
difference is that instead of letters
numbers of percentage is used.
Strengths:

Easy to use
Easy to interpret
theoretically
Provide a concise summary
May be combined with
letter grades
More continuous than
letter grades
Limitations:

Meaning of grades may


vary widely
Do not describe
strengths/weaknesses of students
Meaning may need to
be explained or
interpreted.
Two category grades
Itis good for courses that
require mastery of learning.
Strengths:
Less emotional for students.

Limitations :
Less reliable
Does not contain enough
information about student’s
achievement
Provides no indication of the level
of learning.
CHECK LIST AND RATING SCALE

They are more detailed and


since they are too detailed it is
cumbersome for teachers to
prepare
Strengths
Present detailed lists of
students’ achievements

Can be combined with


letter grades

Good for clinical evaluation


Limitations:

May become too detailed


to easily comprehend

Difficult for record keeping.


Advantages of Grades

Grades are divided in to 5 – 7


divisions to which student’s
performance is assigned as
compared to 101 (0 – 100)
divisions of conventional marking.
It is a convenient method.
Chances of errors are minimized
Disadvantages of Grades:

The assigned grades


varies from teacher to
teacher
2. Do not indicate
students strengths or
weaknesses
3. Foster unfair
competition among
Scoring Essay type Questions
:
Evaluating essay response the
evaluator should:
Evaluator should use
appropriate method to minimize
bias
Pay attention to the
significant and relevant
aspects of the answer
Be careful not to let personal
idiosyncrasy affect assessment
Method of grading essay type
question :

Analyticalgrading :
(Point method)

In this method of the ideal answer


to a question is specified in
advance, although need not be in
the amplitude the ideal or model
answer is broken down into
ADVANTAGES:

It can yield very reliable scores


The preparation of detailed
answer may bring to the teachers.
The sub division of the
model answer can make it
easier to discuss with the
students the marks awarded
to them.
LIMITATIONS:

It is very laborious and


time consuming

In attempting to identify the


elements, undue attention may be
given to the specific aspect.
Global grading:
In this method the ideal answer
is not sub divided into the
specific points and component
points.
The examiner is interacted to read
the responses rapidly from a
general impression and using
some standard and standard
assign
Sequential Grading
In order to bring more
objectivity more answers can
be scored beautifully. This is
the same teacher valuing
answer of a particular question.
Computer Software

The “Software” learns a
specific subject area by
scanning appropriate
documents.
Then, the software is fed graded
essays to set up the grading
standards.
Scoring Objective Tests
 Hand graded :

Due to human effort, mistakes


may occur. Having two graders
grade exams help to catch 90% of
those simple mistakes in grading.
Machine Scoring :
As accurate as the answer
code given to the computer.
Some testing publishers
will only release or sell
their products to individuals
who have undergone
special training or have a
particular degree in a
related field.
Avante International
Technology (Biometric)

The first test scoring system to


achieve less than 1 error in 1.5
million marks during testing by an
independent testing laboratory
responsible for testing election
equipment and ballots. The
same error-free tabulation
method is adapted for test
scoring and grading, and survey
ITEM ANALYSIS:
Definition
Item analysis is a process that
examines students’ response to
individual test items/questions in order
to assess the quality of those items
and of the test as a whole.
Benefits of item analysis:

Provides a basis for efficient


classroom discussion of the test
results
Provides data for remedial
work
Provides a basis for the
general improvement of
classroom instruction
Provides a basis for
Procedures involved in an
item analysis

Qualitative:
Qualitative item analysis procedures
include proofreading of the exam prior
to administering it for typographical
errors, for grammatical cues and for
appropriateness of the reading level of
the material, conducting small group
discussions of students after the exam
and some time with the experts.
Quantitative:

Item difficulty index (p)


Item difficulty index portrays the
“easiness” of an item because the
higher the percentage, the easier the
item. Item difficulty index is
symbolized by p.
Item difficulty = R/T
R = number of students who
correctly answered the item
T = number of students included
for the analysis.
Item Discrimination Index (D)
The item discrimination index of
a test refers to the degree, which
the item discriminates between
high achieving students and low
achieving students in terms of the
scores of the total test
The formula to determine
item discrimination index is :
D = R u - R 1/ ½ T
Ru = number of students in the
upper group who got the item
right.
R1 = number of students in the
lower group who got the item right.

½ T = One half of the total number


of students included in the
EXAMPLE:

After you have notified the doctor


about leg pain in a postpartum mother,
your most APPROPRIATE action
would be to

Massage her leg to


increase circulation
Have her walk around to decrease
the stiffness
Ask her to remain in bed
Distractor Power
The kind of statistic is
Distractor Power. It provides
information about effectiveness
of the distractors
Simplified item analysis
procedures

Conduct test/exams and score


them. (Suppose we have
conducted test on 21 students).

Arrange all answer sheets in


order of merit (From higher to the
lower score).
Calculate 27% of the answer
sheet. For a group of 21
students it will be approx. 6.

Select 6 papers within the


highest total score and the 6
papers with the lowest total
score.

Put aside 9 papers. They will


Compute the difficulty index
of each item.

Compute the discriminating


index of each item.

Evaluate the effectiveness


of distracter
REPORTING
GOALS
Accurate and useful reporting of
assessment results enables
teachers, students, parents and
the public to understand why
various assessment instruments
are being applied and how the
results will be used as part of the
institute improvement process
JOURNAL:

Developing and scoring


essay tests.