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What is a Biosensor?

INTRODUCTION

What Is a Biosensor?
 Biosensor = bioreceptor + Transducer
 The bioreceptor is a biomolecule that recognizes the target analyte whereas the
transducer converts the recognition event into a measurable signal.
 Enzyme is a Bioreceptor
Block Diagram of a Biosensor

Olfactory Olfactory
Membrane Nerve Cell Brain
Sample Biorecogni Signal
(Analyte or tion Processing
Substrate) Transducer
Element Device
Block Diagram of a Biosensor
a) Biocatalyst
b) Transducer
c) Amplifier
d) Processor
e) Monitor
• Specificity
With biosensors, it is possible to measure specific analytes with great accuracy.

• Speed
analyte tracers or catalytic products can be directly and instantaneously measured

• Simplicity
receptor and transducer are integrated into one single sensor& the measurement of target
analytes without using reagents is possible

• Continuous monitoring capability


Biosensors regenerate and reuse the immobilized biological recognition element
 Health Care
 Measurement of Metabolites
Market Potential
Diabetes
Insulin Therapy
Artificial Pancreas

 Industrial Process Control


 Bioreactor Control
 Military Application
 Environmental Monitoring
 Air and Water Monitoring
HOW IT WORKS
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analyte
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Affinity
BM reaction
Signal
transducer
The ability to determine the occurrence of food contamination due to
foodborne pathogens at every stage of food production, processing, and
distribution is crucial to improving the safety of our food supply.
 There are more than 250 known food borne diseases caused by
bacterial and viral infections in the United States. Annually, these
foodborne diseases result in an estimated 76 million illnesses,
325,000 hospitalizations, 5,000 deaths, and 6 billions dollars in
unneeded expenditure. Bacterial contamination accounts for 91% of
total foodborne diseases.
 Salmonella sp.,Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes,
Staphylococcus aureus, Campylobacter jejuni, Campylobacter coli
and Bacillus cereus were found to be main source of bacterial
contaminations in our food supply.
BASES OF OUR MICROBIAL BIOSENSOR
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A microbial biosensor consists of a transducer in conjunction with immobilised
viable or non-viable microbial cells. Non-viable cells obtained after
permeabilisation or whole cells containing periplasmic enzymes have mostly been
used as an economical substitute for enzymes. Viable cells make use of the
respiratory and metabolic functions of the cell, the analyte to be monitored being
either a substrate or an inhibitor of these processes.
Bioluminescence-based microbial biosensors have also been
developed using genetically engineered microorganisms constructed by
fusing the lux gene with an inducible gene promoter for toxicity and
bioavailability testing.
able to metabolise a wide range of chemical compounds
have a great capacity to adapt to adverse conditions and to develop the ability to
degrade new molecules with time.
are also amenable for genetic modifications through mutation or through
recombinant DNA technology and serve as an economical source of intracellular
enzymes.
Analytes and application of microbial biosensors

 Determination of carbohydrates.
 Detection of alcohols and organic acids.

Environmental application of biosensors - common state


 BOD detection
 Surfactant detection
 Pesticides detection
 Determination of hydrocarbons and their derivatives
 Detection of metal ions and inorganic acids
 Assessment of general toxicity and genotoxicity
 Volatile compounds. Miscellaneous
Magnetoelastic biosensor for the detection of Salmonella typhimurium in food products
Sensors
How it works
Changes resistance when a force
or pressure is applied.

Resistance is inversely proportional


to the force applied.

Applications
• Pressure sensor (someone
standing/ sitting)
Force Sensors
• Impact testing
Sensors
How it works
Detects when something is bent and
measure the degree of bend.

Resistance is increase
Flex Sensor
proportional to the degree of
bend.
Application
• Sign language translator.
Sensors
How it works
Detects the amount of current
passing through a conductor by
measuring the magnetic field
generated around it.

Current Sensor

Applications
• Battery supplied applications.
• Circuit protection and control.
• For metering.
Sensors
How it works
Uses how long it takes transmitted
IR to be reflected back into the
receiver to approximate its distance
from an obstacle.
IR Range Finder

Has detection range of 20 cm to 150 cm.

Applications
• Measure presence or absence of
an obstacle.
• Measure how far an object is.
Sensors
How it works
Uses how long it takes sound to be
reflected back to approximate its distance
from an obstacle.

Very accurate and quite expensive.

Has detection range of 2 cm to 400 cm.

Applications
• Measure presence or absence of
an obstacle.
• Measure how further away an
Ultrasonic Range Finders object is.
Sensors
How it works
Used to detect whether a
human has moved in or out of the
sensor’s range. Senses motion

Response time and sensitivity van be


Passive IR Sensor tuned.

Applications
• Engaging and disengaging door
locks.
• Implement power management
strategy by putting of lights when
room is no longer in use.
Sensors
How it works
Measures atmospheric conditions.

Humidity Sensor

Application
• Used in home heating, ventilating,
and air conditioning systems,
offices, cars, industrial spaces and
greenhouses.

Temperature Sensors
Sensors
How it works
Conducts electricity at a certain rate
therefore leading to a specific level of
charge flow that is associated with a
specific level of pressure.

Barometric Sensor
Applications
• Used in aircrafts, rockets, satellites
and weather balloons to measure
altitude.
Sensors

Soil Moisture Sensor Carbon Monoxide Sensor

Liquid Level Sensor

Alcohol Gas Sensor


Sensors

Tilt Sensor
Gyroscope
Accelerometer
Compass

Hall Effect Sensor

Vibration Sensor
Sensors

Line Sensor

Geo Phone

Light Sensor
Pulse/Heart Rate Sensor