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Systems Analysis & Design 1

10th Edition

CHAPTER 3
Requirements Modeling
Phase Description
2

 PLANNING
 ANALYSIS
 Requirements Modeling
 Data & Process Modeling
 Development Strategies
 DESIGN
 IMPLEMENTATION
 SYSTEMS OPERATION, SUPPORT &
SECURITY
Content
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 System Analysis Phase


 Requirements Modeling Technique
 System Requirements
 Fact Finding Techniques
Introduction
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 Objective:
 Understand the proposed project
 Ensure that it will support business
requirements
 Build a solid foundation for system
development
Systems Analysis Activities
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End product 
System
Requirements
Document
Requirements Modeling
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 Describe current system


 Identify requirements
 Outputs

 Inputs
Involves
 Processes
fact finding
 Performance

 Security
System Analysis Skills
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 Analytical skills
 Identify problem
 Evaluate key elements
 Develop useful solution

 Interpersonal skills
 Work with people at all levels
 Balance conflicting user needs
 Communicate effectively
Team Oriented Technique
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 Team based approach – user and


developer
 Joint Application Development (JAD)
 Rapid Application Development (RAD)
 Agile methods
Joint Application Development
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 Participants – project leader, top management,


managers, users, SA, IT staff, recorder
 Users  active participants
 Objective :
 analyze the existing system
 obtain user input
 document user requirements
 End product 
 requirements model
Joint Application Development
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 Advantages
 Allows key users to participate effectively
 More accurate system requirements
 Better understanding of common goals
 Stronger commitment to the success of the new system

 Disadvantages
 More expensive and can be cumbersome if the group is
too large relative to the size of the project
Rapid Application Development
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 A team-based technique that speeds up information


systems development and produces a functioning
information system
 Relies heavily on prototyping and user involvement
 Process continues until the system is completely
developed and users are satisfied
 Objectives: cut development time and expense
Rapid Application Development
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Rapid Application Development
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 Advantages
 Systems can be developed more quickly with
significant cost savings
 Disadvantages
 RAD stresses the mechanics of the system itself and
does not emphasize the company’s strategic business
needs
 Might allow less time to develop quality, consistency,
and design standards
Agile Methods
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 Attempt to develop a system


incrementally
 Agilian modeling toolset includes support
for many modeling tools
 Some agile developers prefer not to use
CASE tools at all, and rely instead on
whiteboard displays and arrangements
of movable sticky notes
Agile Methods
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 Agile Method Advantages and


Disadvantages
 Are very flexible and efficient in dealing
with change
 Frequent deliverables constantly validate
the project and reduce risk
 Team members need a high level of
technical and interpersonal skills
 May be subject to significant change in
scope
Modeling Tools and Techniques
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 Models – helps to understand design of system

 CASE Tools offer powerful modeling features

 Functional Decomposition Diagrams


 Data Flow Diagrams
 Unified Modeling Language
Functional Decomposition
Diagram
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 Top-down representation of a function or a process


 Also known as structure charts
Data Flow Diagrams
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 Shows how the system stores, processes and


transforms data.
Unified Modeling Language
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 Widely used method of visualizing and


documenting software systems design
 Uses OOD concept
 Can be used to describe business processes &
requirements
 Use case diagrams
 Actor
 Sequence diagrams Customer
Validate Credit Card
System Requirements
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A characteristic or feature
that must
be included in an IS in order to
satisfy business requirements
and be acceptable to users.
System Requirements
Checklist
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 Outputs
 System must produce daily report showing …….
 Inputs
 Input form must include …… Please refer to
text book for
 Processes other examples
 System must calculate CGPA …..
 Performance
 Response time must not exceed four seconds ….
 Controls
 Log-on security at application and os level …
Future Growth, Costs, and
Benefits
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 Scalability
 System’s ability to handle increased business volume
and transactions
 A scalable system offers a better return on the initial
investment
 To evaluate, you need information about projected
future volume for all outputs, inputs, and processes
Future Growth, Costs, and
Benefits
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 Total Cost of Ownership


 Total cost of ownership (TCO) is especially important
if the development team is evaluating several
alternatives
 TCO = direct cost + indirect cost
 One problem is that cost estimates tend to understate
indirect costs
Fact-Finding Techniques
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 Interviews
 Document Review
 Observation
 Questionnaires & surveys
 Sampling
 Research
Interviews
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 A planned meeting during which you obtain information


from another person
 Most common fact finding technique
 Seven steps:
 Determine the people to interview
 Establish objectives for the interview
 Develop interview questions
 Prepare for the interview
 Conduct the interview
 Document the interview
 Evaluate the interview
1: Determine the People to
Interview
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 During PI – middle managers & department heads


 During analysis – people from all levels of the
organization
 Select candidates from organization chart
 Also consider informal structures
 Group interviews
 One person domination
 Presence of senior managers
2: Establish Objectives for the
Interview
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 Determine the general areas to be discussed


 List the facts you want to gather
3: Develop Interview Questions
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 Avoid leading questions


 Open-ended questions
 Closed-ended questions
 Range-of-response questions
4: Prepare for the Interview
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 Prepare carefully
 Interview is an important meeting
 Limit < one hour
 Send a list of topics
 Ask the interviewee to have samples available
5: Conduct the Interview
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 Develop a specific plan for the meeting


 Begin by introducing yourself, describing the
project, and explaining interview objectives
 Use engaged listening
 Allow the person enough time to think about the
question
 After interview, summarize the session and seek a
confirmation
6: Document the Interview
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 Note taking should be kept to a minimum


 After the interview, record the information quickly
 After the interview, send memo expressing
appreciation, including the main points discussed
so the interviewee has a written summary and can
offer additions or corrections
7: Evaluate the Interview
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 In addition to recording the facts obtained in an


interview, try to identify any possible biases
Unsuccessful Interviews
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 Misunderstanding
 Personality conflict
 Afraid of losing/changing job
Other Fact-Finding Techniques
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 Document Review
 Observation
 Seeing the system in action gives
you additional perspective and a
better understanding of the system
procedures
 Plan your observations in advance
 Hawthorne Effect
Other Fact-Finding Techniques
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 Questionnaires and Surveys


 When designing a questionnaire, the most important
rule of all is to make sure that your questions collect
the right data in a form that you can use to further your
fact-finding
 Fill-in form
Other Fact-Finding Techniques
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 Sampling
 Systematic sample
 Stratified sample
 Random sample
 Main objective of a sample is to ensure that it
represents the overall population accurately
Other Fact-Finding Techniques
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 Research
 Can include the Internet, IT magazines, and books to
obtain background information, technical material, and
news about industry trends and developments
 Site visit
Other Fact-Finding Techniques
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 Interviews versus Questionnaires


 Interview is more familiar and personal
 Questionnaire gives many people the opportunity to
provide input and suggestions
 Brainstorming
 Structured brainstorming
 Unstructured brainstorming
Documentation
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 The Need for Recording the Facts


 Record information as soon as you obtain it
 Use the simplest recording method
 Record your findings in such a way that they can be
understood by someone else
 Organize your documentation so related material is
located easily
Documentation
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 Software Tools
 CASE Tools
 Productivity Software
 Word processing, spreadsheets, database management,
presentation graphics programs
 Histogram
Documentation
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 Software Tools
 Graphics modeling software
 Personal information managers
 Personal information manager (PIM)
 Handheld computers
 Personal digital assistants (PDAs)
 Wireless communication devices
Chapter Summary
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 The systems analysis phase includes


three activities: requirements modeling,
data and process modeling, and
consideration of development strategies
 The main objective is to understand the
proposed project, ensure that it will
support business requirements, and
build a solid foundation for the systems
design phase
Chapter Summary
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• The fact-finding process includes


interviewing, document review, observation,
questionnaires, sampling, and research
• Systems analysts should carefully record
and document factual information as it is
collected, and various software tools can
help an analyst visualize and describe an
information system

• Chapter 3 complete