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Fluid Mechanics

Introduction:-

with the behaviour of fluids at rest (fluid statics) or in

motion (fluid dynamics), and the interaction of fluids

with solids or other fluids at the boundaries.

Introduction

Fluid Mechanics

F 0 i F 0 , Flows

i

Alcohols, etc. Buoyancy

N2, etc. Pressure Compressible/

Incompressible

Laminar/

Surface

Turbulen

t Steady/Unsteady

Compressibility Density

Viscosity

Tensio Viscous/Inviscid

Fluid Dynamics:

n

Fluid Statics

What is Fluid?

A substance exist in three phase: solid, liquid & gas.

A substance in the liquid or gas phase is referred as a

fluid.

Distinction b/w a solid and fluid is made on the basis of

its ability to resist applied shear stress.

A solid can resist an applied shear stress by deforming,

whereas a fluid deforms continuously under influence

of shear stress, no matter how small.

What is Fluid?

Difference b/w liquid and gases

Liquid Gas

Easily compressible

Difficult to compress and often regarded as

incompressible.

occupies a fixed volume and will take the expand to fill the containing vessels

shape of container

A free surface is formed if the volume of surface is formed

container is greater than the liquid

Continuum hypothesis

Fluid is assumed to be continuous substance without any empty space .

It simplifies the analysis and allow to define various properties like

temp. Density etc.

Continuum hypo is not valid when volume become comparable with

intermolecular spacing.

It is described by Knudsen number Kn = λ/L

λ= mean free path b/w two successive collision

L = Characteristics length

Kn < 0.01 Continuum is valid

0.01 < Kn < 0.1 Slip flow

0.1 < Kn < 10 Transition flow

Kn > 10 Free flow

Continuum hypothesis

1. Space shuttle entry.

2. Flow in micro channel – size of micro channel is

very small (0.5 µm) for the fluid flow.

Basic Fluid properties

Density

Specific gravity

Bulk modulus

Coefficient of volumetric expansion

Surface tension

Viscosity

Vapour pressure

Basic Fluid properties

Density or mass density

fluid to its volume. It denoted by ρ

Mathematically ρ = Mass/ Volume

Unit is kg/ m3

Dimension- ML-3

ρwater = 1000 kg/ m3 @ 4 degree Celsius

ρhg = 13600 kg/ m3 @ NTP (1 atm pressure & 273k temp.)

ρair = 1.29 kg/ m3 @ NTP

Basic Fluid properties

Density of a substance in general depends on

temperature and pressure.

The density of most gases is proportional to pressure

and inversely proportional to temperature.

Liquids and solids on the other hand are

incompressible substance and the variation of their

density with pressure is usually negligible.

Basic Fluid properties

Specific weight or Weight density

It is denoted by ω

Mathematically ω = weight/ volume = ρg

Unit – N/m3

Dimension – ML-2 T-2

Basic Fluid properties

Specific gravity or Relative density

It is the ratio of density of given fluid to the density of

standard fluid.

SG = ρ/ ρstandard

Density of water is taken as ρstandard for liquid and

solids.

Density of air is taken as ρstandard for gas.

Basic Fluid properties

Bulk modulus of elasticity (k)

Compressibility of any substance is measure of change

in volume or density with application of pressure &

characterised by bulk modulus of elasticity.

k = ρ(dp/dρ)t = -v(dp/dv)t

High value of k means fluid is less compressible and

vice versa.

For water k is 2 x 106 kN/m2 & for water it is 101 kN/m2

Means air is 2 x 104 times more compressible than

water.

Unit- Pascal or N/m2

During fluid flow all compressible fluid does not posses

compressible flow & all incompressible fluid do not have

incompressible flow.

It is the change in pressure which decide the compressibility

during fluid flow.

If Δp in any flow is such that its volume change is considerable

than the flow is called compressible flow.

Mach no. Ma = V/a , V is velocity of fluid in that medium.

If dρ/ρ is <= 0.05 or Ma<= 0.33 means flow is incompressible.

For air at STP a=335 m/s , Ma = 0.33 than we get V<=110 m/s

Flow of air at STP under 110 m/s is incompressible.

Basic Fluid properties

Compressibility α

α = 1/k at const Temp.

α = 1/ρ(dρ/dp)t = -1/v(dv/dp)t

Unit- Pascal-1

dv = β V dT @ constant pressure

β = 1/v(dv/dt)p = - 1/ρ(dρ/dp)p

Unit – / °C

Basic Fluid properties

Surface tension –

Surface tension is the tendency of fluid surfaces to

shrink into the minimum surface area possible.

Surface tension is the force acting per unit length of an

imaginary line drawn perpendicular to it at every point on

either side of it.

σ = F/L = dW/dA

Where σ is surface tension

F is force experience due to tension

L is length of imaginary line.

W is amount of work is done against the cohesive

force

A is area of new surface.

Unit – N/m or J/m2

Surface tension decreases with increase in

temperature.

Surface tension inside curved surfaces

A thin film of liquid separates gas on both side. Thus

above equation changes to Δp = 2σ {1/r1 +1/r2 }.

Δp is difference in pressure inside & outside the film.

Spherical liquid drop :-

r1 & r2 = r

Δp = 2σ/r

r1 & r2 = r

Δp = 4σ/r

r1 =r & r2 = ∞

Δp = σ/r

Angle of contact:-

It is the angle between solid surface & the tangent

drawn to the liquid surface at the point of contact.

The angle should be measured from liquid side.

Surface tension acts along the angle of contact.

Capillary action

action (sometimes capillarity, capillary motion, cap

illary effect, or wicking) is the ability of a liquid to

flow in narrow spaces without the assistance of, or

even in opposition to, external forces like gravity.

Absolute dynamic viscosity µ

Viscosity is internal resistance to the fluid flow. It is a

friction between the adjacent layer of fluid.

It is the property of fluid under motion of fluid.

Newton’s law of viscosity:-

It states that shear stress between the adjacent fluid layer

is directly proportional to rate of change of shear strain or

velocity gradient.

τ = µ (dφ/dt) = µ (du/dt)

Unit of µ -

S.I unit- Pa.sec

C.G.S – Poise

1 Poise = 0.1 Pa. Sec

Dimension – M-1 L-1 T-1

Fluid which follow above law known as Newtonian fluid.

Kinematic Viscosity υ

to density - a quantity in which no force is involved.

ν = μ / ρ

ν = kinematic viscosity (m2/s)

μ = absolute or dynamic viscosity (N s/m2)

ρ = density (kg/m3)

flow under gravitational forces. It is determined by measuring the

time in seconds, required for a fixed volume of fluid to flow a known

distance by gravity through a capillary within a calibrated

viscometer at a closely controlled temperature. It is also known as

momentum diffusivity.

Units –

M.K.S - m2 / sec

C.G.S – Stokes

1 Stokes = 10-4

Dimension - M0 L 0 T-1

Effect of temperature on viscosity

In liquid viscosity decreases with increases in

temperature of liquid.

For gases viscosity increases with increases in

temperature of gas.

Vapour pressure

Vapour pressure or equilibrium vapour pressure is defined

as the pressure exerted by a vapour in thermodynamic

equilibrium with its condensed phases at a given

temperature in a closed system. The equilibrium vapour

pressure is an indication of a liquid's evaporation rate.

Pv = f(t)

0 0.6

25 3.17

100 101.325

Evaporation is rate of liquid leaving from its surface

when the vapour pressure of liquid is less than

surrounding pressure at given temperature.

Pv < Pext

Boiling is high rate of vaporisation when vapour

pressure of liquid is greater than surrounding pressure

at given temp.

Pv >Pext

Boiling can be achieved either by heating (increasing

Pv ) or reducing external pressure.

Non Newtonian fluid

Fluid which do not follow Newton's law of viscosity

known as non Newtonian fluid.

Fluid statics

rigid-body motion (there is no relative motion

between adjacent layers).

In both instances there will be no shearing stresses in

the fluid, and the only forces that develop on the

surfaces of the particles will be due to the pressure.

The fluid property responsible for those forces is

pressure, which is a normal force exerted by a fluid

per unit area.

Thus, our principal concern is to investigate pressure

and its variation throughout a fluid and the effect of

pressure on submerged surfaces.

Pressure

per unit area.

Since pressure is defined as force per unit area, it has the

unit of newtons per square meter (N/m2), which is called

a pascal (Pa). That is,

1 Pa = 1 N/m2

encountered in practice. Therefore, its multiples

kilopascal (1 kPa =103 Pa) and megapascal (1 MPa =106 Pa)

are commonly used.

Units of pressure

1 bar = 105 Pa where Pa stands for pascal

1 atm = 101325 Pa = 1.01325 bar

1 atm = 760 mm of hg

1 psi = 6.8948 x 103 Pa

@ STP

Pressure = 760 mm of hg or 1.01325bar or 1 atm

Temp = 0. c

@ NTP

Pressure = 760 mm of hg or 1.01325bar or 1 atm

Temp = 15. c

Pressures below atmospheric pressure are called

vacuum pressures and are measured by vacuum

gages that indicate the difference between the

atmospheric pressure and the absolute pressure.

Absolute, gage, and vacuum pressures are all

positive quantities and are related to each other

by

pressure is almost always used. Throughout this

course, the pressure P will denote absolute

pressure unless specified otherwise.

The pressure at a point in a fluid has the same

magnitude in all directions.

this result is applicable to fluids in motion (rigid

body motion, no relative motion between layers)

as well as fluids at rest.

Application of Pascal’s law

• Two hydraulic cylinders of

different areas could be

connected, and the larger

could be used to exert a

proportionally greater

force than that applied to

the smaller.

since both pistons are

at the same level.

Variation of pressure with depth

Pressure in a fluid increases with depth because

more fluid rests on deeper layers, and the effect of

this “extra weight” on a deeper layer is balanced by

an increase in pressure.

If we take point 1 to be at the free surface of a liquid open

to the atmosphere, where the pressure is the atmospheric

pressure Patm then the pressure at a depth h from the free

surface becomes.

thus the variation of density with depth is negligible.

This is also the case for gases when the elevation change is

not very large.

Variation of pressure with depth

Pressure is independent of the shape of the

container.

The pressure is the same at all points on a given

horizontal plane in the same fluid.

The Manometer

An elevation change of Δz in a fluid at rest corresponds

to ΔP/ρg, which suggests that a fluid column can be

used to measure pressure differences.

A device based on this principle is called a

manometer, and it is commonly used to measure

small and moderate pressure differences.

A manometer mainly consists of a glass or plastic U-

tube containing one or more fluids such as mercury,

water, alcohol, or oil.

To keep the size of the manometer to a manageable

level, heavy fluids such as mercury are used if large

pressure differences are anticipated.

U-tube Manometer

where ρ is the density of the fluid in the tube. Note that the cross-

sectional area of the tube has no effect on the differential height

h, and thus the pressure exerted by the fluid.

However, the diameter of the tube should be large enough (more

than a few millimetres) to ensure that the surface tension effect

and thus the capillary rise is negligible.

Hydrostatic Forces on Submerged Plane surfaces

A plate exposed to a liquid,

such as a gate valve in a dam,

the wall of a liquid storage

tank is subjected to fluid

pressure distributed over its

surface

On a plane surface, the

hydrostatic forces form a

system of parallel forces, and

we often need to determine

the magnitude of the force

and its point of application,

which is called the center of

pressure.

Hydrostatic Forces on Submerged Plane

surfaces

Consider the top

surface of a flat plate

of arbitrary shape

completely

submerged in a

liquid.

The plane of this

surface (normal to

the page) intersects

the horizontal free

surface with an angle

θ, and we take the

line of intersection to

be the x- axis.

The magnitude of the resultant force acting on a

plane surface of a completely submerged plate in a

homogeneous (constant density) fluid is equal to the

product of the pressure PC at the centroid of the

surface and the area A of the surface.

P c = Po + ρghc

Buoyancy, Floatation and stability

weighs less in a liquid than it does in air. This can be

demonstrated easily by weighing a heavy object in water by

a waterproof spring scale. Also, objects made of wood or

other light materials float on water.

These and other observations suggest that a fluid exerts

an upward force on a body immersed in it. This force

that tends to lift the body is called the buoyant force

and is denoted by FB.

The buoyant force is caused by the increase of pressure in

a fluid with depth.

Buoyancy, Floatation and stability

of thickness h submerged in a

liquid of density ρf parallel to the

free surface, as shown in the Fig.

The area of the top (and also

bottom) surface of the plate is A,

and its distance to the free surface

is s.

The pressures at the top and

bottom surfaces of the plate are ρf

gs and ρf g(s + h), respectively.

The difference between these two

forces is a net upward force,

which is the buoyant force,

Buoyancy, Floatation and stability

is simply the weight of the liquid whose volume is equal to the

volume of the plate.

Thus, we conclude that the buoyant force acting on the plate is

equal to the weight of the liquid displaced by the plate.

Note that the buoyant force is independent of the distance of

the body from the free surface. It is also independent of the

density of the solid body.

This is known as Archimedes’ principle, after the Greek

mathematician Archimedes (287–212 BC), and is expressed as

equal to the weight of the fluid displaced by the body, and it

acts upward through the centroid of the displaced volume.

Buoyancy, Floatation and stability

body is submerged, with the remainder poking up out of

the free surface.

Buoyancy, Floatation and stability

A body immersed in a

fluid

1) Remains at rest at any

point in the fluid when

its density is equal to

the density of the fluid,

2) Sinks to the bottom

when its density is

greater than the density

of the fluid, and

3) Rises to the surface of

the fluid and floats

when the density of the

body is less than the

density of the fluid

Stability of Immersed and Floating Bodies

An important application

of the buoyancy concept is

the assessment of the

stability of immersed and

floating bodies with no

external attachments.

This topic is of great

importance in the design

of ships and submarines

Stability of Immersed and Floating Bodies

equilibrium position if, when displaced,

it returns to its equilibrium position.

Conversely, it is in an unstable

equilibrium position if, when displaced

(even slightly), it moves to a new

equilibrium position.

Stability considerations are particularly

important for submerged or floating

bodies since the centers of buoyancy and

gravity do not necessarily coincide.

A small rotation can result in either a

restoring or overturning couple.

Stability of Immersed and Floating Bodies

submerged body shown in the Fig. ,

which has a center of gravity below

the center of buoyancy, a rotation

from its equilibrium position will

create a restoring couple formed by

the weight , and the buoyant force,

which causes the body to rotate back

to its original position.

Thus, for this configuration the body

is stable. It is to be noted that as

long as the center of gravity falls

below the center of buoyancy, this

will always be true; that is, the body

is in a stable equilibrium position

with respect to small rotations.

Stability of Immersed and Floating Bodies

completely submerged body

is above the center of

buoyancy, the resulting

couple formed by the weight

and the buoyant force will

cause the body to overturn and

move to a new equilibrium

position.

Thus, a completely submerged

body with its center of

gravity above its center of

buoyancy is in an unstable

equilibrium position.

Stability of Immersed and Floating Bodies

GM = Metacentric height

M above G = Body in stable equilibrium.

GM = BM - BG

M below G = Body in unstable equilibrium.

GM > 0 stable equilibrium

GM = (Iyy / V ) – BG

Moment of inertia of pitching is more than rolling so Ship

design is more concern on rolling than pitching.

Fluid Kinematics :-

Basic concepts

Continuity equation

Fluid acceleration

Motion of fluid elements

Stream function & potential velocity

Classification of Fluid Flows

If we look at a fluid flowing under normal circumstances - a

river for example - the conditions (e.g. velocity, pressure) at

one point will vary from those at another point, then we

have non-uniform flow.

If the conditions at one point vary as time passes, then we

have unsteady flow.

Uniform flow: If the flow velocity is the same magnitude

and direction at every point in the flow it is said to be

uniform. That is, the flow conditions DO NOT change with

position.

Non-uniform: If at a given instant, the velocity is not the

same at every point the flow is non-uniform.

5

8

Classification of Fluid Flows

(velocity, pressure and cross-section) may differ from point

to point but DO NOT change with time.

Unsteady: If at any point in the fluid, the conditions change

with time, the flow is described as unsteady.

Combining the above we can classify any flow in to

one of four types:

Steady uniform flow. Conditions do not change with

position in the stream or with time. An example is the

flow of water in a pipe of constant diameter at constant

velocity.

5

9

Classification of Fluid Flows

Steady non-uniform flow. Conditions change from point

to point in the stream but do not change with time. An

example is flow in a tapering pipe with constant velocity

at the inlet - velocity will change as you move along the

length of the pipe toward the exit.

Unsteady uniform flow. At a given instant in time the

conditions at every point are the same, but will change

with time. An example is a pipe of constant diameter

connected to a pump pumping at a constant rate which is

then switched off.

Unsteady non-uniform flow. Every condition of the flow

may change from point to point and with time at every

6

0

point. An example is surface waves in an open channel.

Classification of Fluid Flows

One-, two-, and three-dimensional flows

A fluid flow is in general a three-dimensional, spatial and time

dependent phenomenon:-

the Cartesian coordinates, and velocity are the

components in these directions.

As defined above, the flow will be uniform if the velocity

and will be steady if the velocity components are

6

independent of time t.

Classification of Fluid Flows

2) One-, two-, and

three-dimensional

flows

Accordingly, a fluid

flow is called three-

dimensional if all three

velocity components

are equally important.

A three-dimensional

flow problem will

have the most complex

characters and is the

most difficult to solve.

Classification of Fluid Flows

Viscous and inviscid flows

An inviscid flow is one in which viscous effects do not

significantly influence the flow and are thus neglected.

If the shear stresses in a flow are small and act over such

small areas that they do not significantly affect the flow

field the flow can be assumed as inviscid flow.

In a viscous flow the effects of viscosity are

important and cannot be ignored.

Based on experience, it has been found that the primary

class of flows, which can be modeled as inviscid flows, is

external flows, that is, flows of an unbounded fluid

which exist exterior to a body. Any viscous effects that

may exist are confined to a thin layer, called a boundary

layer, which is attached to the boundary.

Classification of Fluid Flows

5) Laminar and turbulent flows

middle of pipe flow of water. The dye streaks will vary,

as shown in (b), depending on the flow rate in the pipe.

64

Classification of Fluid Flows

The top situation is called laminar flow, and the lower is

turbulent flow, occurring when the flow is sufficiently

slow and fast, respectively.

In laminar flow the motion of the fluid particles is very

orderly with all particles moving in straight lines parallel to

the pipe wall. There is essentially no mixing of

neighboring fluid particles.

In sharp contrast, mixing is very significant in

turbulent flow, in which fluid particles move

haphazardly in all directions.

It is therefore impossible to trace motion of

individual particles in turbulent flow.

65

Classification of Fluid Flows

Whether the flow is laminar or not depends on

the

Reynolds number,

66

Continuity equation

If the fluid is incompressible, e.g. water, with ρ

being

effectively constant, then .

The Acceleration Field of a Fluid

Velocity is a vector function of position and time and thus

has three components u, v, and w, each a scalar field in

itself.

Knowledge of the velocity vector field is nearly

equivalent to solving a fluid flow problem.

The acceleration vector field a of the flow is derived

from Newton’s second law by computing the total time

derivative of the velocity vector:

The Acceleration Field of a Fluid

acceleration:

The Stream Function

Consider the simple case of incompressible, two-dimensional

flow in the xy-plane.

The continuity equation in Cartesian coordinates reduces to

(1)

A clever variable transformation enables us to rewrite this

equation (Eq. 1) in terms of one dependent variable (ψ)

instead of two dependent variables (u and v).

We define the stream function ψ as

(2)

Streamline :-

A streamline at any instant of time is an imaginary

curve or line in the flow field so that the tangent to the

curve at any point represent the direction of the

instantaneous velocity at that point.

Two streamline can not intersect each other.

Equation of streamline V X ds = 0

Path line :-

A path line is the trajectory of a fluid particle of a

given identity.

When flow is steady path line & streamline become

identical.

Fluid dynamics:-

Basic equation of motion-

Bernoulli’s equation & its application.

Flow measurements

Momentum equation & its application

Basic Physical Laws of Fluid Mechanics

Systems and Control Volumes

A system is defined as a quantity of

matter or a region in space chosen for

study.

The mass or region outside the system

is called the surroundings.

The real or imaginary surface that

separates the system from its

surroundings is called the boundary.

The boundary of a system can be

fixed

or movable.

Note that the boundary is the contact surface shared by both the

system and the surroundings. Mathematically speaking, the

21 boundary has zero thickness, and thus it can neither contain any

Control volume

A control volume is a finite region,

chosen carefully by the analyst for a

particular problem, with open

boundaries through which mass,

momentum, and energy are allowed to

cross.

The analyst makes a budget, or balance,

between the incoming and outgoing

fluid and the resultant changes within

the control volume. Therefore one can

calculate the gross properties (net force,

total power output, total heat transfer,

etc.) with this method.

With this method, however, we do not

30 care about the details inside the control

volume.

Basic Physical Laws of Fluid Mechanics

into the control volume form suitable for arbitrary

regions in a flow: The four basic laws are:

1. Conservation of mass

2. The linear momentum relation

3. The angular momentum relation

4. The energy equation

Wherever necessary to complete the analysis we also

introduce a state relation such as the perfect-gas law.

We shall derive the three basic control-volume

relations in fluid mechanics:

1. The principle of conservation of mass, from

which the continuity equation is developed;

2.The principle of conservation of energy, from

which the energy equation is derived;

3.The principle of conservation of linear momentum,

from which equations evaluating dynamic forces

exerted by flowing fluids may be established.

The Bernoulli Equation

The Bernoulli equation is an approximate relation

between pressure, velocity, and elevation, and is valid in

regions of steady, incompressible flow where net frictional

forces are negligible.

Despite its simplicity, it has proven to be a very powerful

tool in fluid mechanics.

Applying the Bernoulli equation to any two

points on the same streamline, we have

Application of Bernoulli’s equation

Various problems on the one-dimensional flow of an ideal

fluid can be solved by jointly using Bernoulli’s theorem and

the continuity equation.

Venturi, nozzle and orifice meters

The Venturi, nozzle, and orifice-meters are three similar

types of devices for measuring discharge in a pipe.

The Venturi meter consists of a rapidly converging section,

which increases the velocity of flow and hence reduces the

pressure.

It then returns to the original dimensions of the pipe by

a gently diverging 'diffuser' section.

By measuring the pressure differences the discharge can be

calculated.

Application of Bernoulli’s equation

We assume the flow is

horizontal

steady, inviscid, and

incompressible

between points (1) and

(2). The Bernoulli

equation becomes

Application of Bernoulli’s equation

If we assume the velocity profiles are uniform at sections

(1) and (2), the continuity equation can be written as

Combination of these two equations results in the

following theoretical flowrate

can be determined if the pressure difference, is

measured.

Application of Bernoulli’s equation- The Pitot Tube

The Pitot Tube is a device used for measuring the velocity

of flow at any point in a pipe or a channel.

Principle: If the velocity at any point decreases, the

pressure at that point increases due to the conservation of

the kinetic energy into pressure energy. In simplest form, the

Pitot tube consists of a glass tube, bent at right angles.

The Momentum Equation and its Application

On applying Newton's second law of motion to the control

volume

follows from the principle of conservation of linear

momentum: resultant force on the control volume is

balanced by the net rate of momentum flux )

out through the control surface.

Application of the momentum Equation :-

Force on a pipe nozzle

the force on the nozzle at the outlet of a pipe. Because the

fluid is contracted at the nozzle forces are induced in the

nozzle. Anything holding the nozzle (e.g. a fireman) must

be strong enough to withstand these forces.

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