Sei sulla pagina 1di 89

Fluid Mechanics

Fluid Mechanics

• Fluid mechanics is defined as the science that deals

with the behaviour of fluids at rest (fluid statics) or in
motion (fluid dynamics), and the interaction of fluids
with solids or other fluids at the boundaries.

Fluid Mechanics

Gas Liquids Statics Dynamics

 F 0 i  F  0 , Flows

Air, He, Ar, Water, Oils, Stability

Alcohols, etc. Buoyancy
N2, etc. Pressure Compressible/

t Steady/Unsteady
Compressibility Density
Tensio Viscous/Inviscid
Fluid Dynamics:
Fluid Statics
What is Fluid?
A substance exist in three phase: solid, liquid & gas.
A substance in the liquid or gas phase is referred as a
Distinction b/w a solid and fluid is made on the basis of
its ability to resist applied shear stress.
A solid can resist an applied shear stress by deforming,
whereas a fluid deforms continuously under influence
of shear stress, no matter how small.
What is Fluid?
Difference b/w liquid and gases

Liquid Gas

Easily compressible
Difficult to compress and often regarded as

No fixed volume, it changes volume to

occupies a fixed volume and will take the expand to fill the containing vessels
shape of container

Completely fill the vessel so that no free

A free surface is formed if the volume of surface is formed
container is greater than the liquid
Continuum hypothesis
 Fluid is assumed to be continuous substance without any empty space .
 It simplifies the analysis and allow to define various properties like
temp. Density etc.
 Continuum hypo is not valid when volume become comparable with
intermolecular spacing.
 It is described by Knudsen number Kn = λ/L
 λ= mean free path b/w two successive collision
 L = Characteristics length
Kn < 0.01 Continuum is valid
0.01 < Kn < 0.1 Slip flow
0.1 < Kn < 10 Transition flow
Kn > 10 Free flow
Continuum hypothesis

Continuum is not valid in –

1. Space shuttle entry.
2. Flow in micro channel – size of micro channel is
very small (0.5 µm) for the fluid flow.
Basic Fluid properties
Specific gravity
Bulk modulus
Coefficient of volumetric expansion
Surface tension
Vapour pressure
Basic Fluid properties
Density or mass density

Density of a fluid is defined as the ratio of the mass of the

fluid to its volume. It denoted by ρ
Mathematically ρ = Mass/ Volume
Unit is kg/ m3
 Dimension- ML-3
ρwater = 1000 kg/ m3 @ 4 degree Celsius
ρhg = 13600 kg/ m3 @ NTP (1 atm pressure & 273k temp.)
ρair = 1.29 kg/ m3 @ NTP
Basic Fluid properties
Density of a substance in general depends on
temperature and pressure.
The density of most gases is proportional to pressure
and inversely proportional to temperature.
Liquids and solids on the other hand are
incompressible substance and the variation of their
density with pressure is usually negligible.
Basic Fluid properties
Specific weight or Weight density

It is a ratio between weight of a fluid to its volume

It is denoted by ω
Mathematically ω = weight/ volume = ρg
Unit – N/m3
Dimension – ML-2 T-2
Basic Fluid properties
Specific gravity or Relative density
It is the ratio of density of given fluid to the density of
standard fluid.
SG = ρ/ ρstandard
Density of water is taken as ρstandard for liquid and
Density of air is taken as ρstandard for gas.
Basic Fluid properties
Bulk modulus of elasticity (k)
Compressibility of any substance is measure of change
in volume or density with application of pressure &
characterised by bulk modulus of elasticity.
k = ρ(dp/dρ)t = -v(dp/dv)t
 High value of k means fluid is less compressible and
vice versa.
For water k is 2 x 106 kN/m2 & for water it is 101 kN/m2
Means air is 2 x 104 times more compressible than
Unit- Pascal or N/m2
 During fluid flow all compressible fluid does not posses
compressible flow & all incompressible fluid do not have
incompressible flow.
 It is the change in pressure which decide the compressibility
during fluid flow.
If Δp in any flow is such that its volume change is considerable
than the flow is called compressible flow.

 E / density = Acoustic velocity in fluid medium(a).

Mach no. Ma = V/a , V is velocity of fluid in that medium.
If dρ/ρ is <= 0.05 or Ma<= 0.33 means flow is incompressible.
For air at STP a=335 m/s , Ma = 0.33 than we get V<=110 m/s
Flow of air at STP under 110 m/s is incompressible.
Basic Fluid properties
Compressibility α
α = 1/k at const Temp.
α = 1/ρ(dρ/dp)t = -1/v(dv/dp)t
 Unit- Pascal-1

Coefficient of volumetric expansion β

dv = β V dT @ constant pressure
β = 1/v(dv/dt)p = - 1/ρ(dρ/dp)p
Unit – / °C
Basic Fluid properties
Surface tension –
Surface tension is the tendency of fluid surfaces to
shrink into the minimum surface area possible. 
Surface tension is the force acting per unit length of an
imaginary line drawn perpendicular to it at every point on
either side of it.
σ = F/L = dW/dA
Where σ is surface tension
F is force experience due to tension
L is length of imaginary line.
W is amount of work is done against the cohesive
A is area of new surface.
Unit – N/m or J/m2
Surface tension decreases with increase in
Surface tension inside curved surfaces

Δp = σ {1/r1 +1/r2 } Young Laplace equation

 A thin film of liquid separates gas on both side. Thus
above equation changes to Δp = 2σ {1/r1 +1/r2 }.
Δp is difference in pressure inside & outside the film.
Spherical liquid drop :-
r1 & r2 = r
 Δp = 2σ/r

Spherical liquid drop :-

 r1 & r2 = r
Δp = 4σ/r

Pressure rise inside jet

 r1 =r & r2 = ∞
Δp = σ/r
Angle of contact:-
It is the angle between solid surface & the tangent
drawn to the liquid surface at the point of contact.
The angle should be measured from liquid side.
Surface tension acts along the angle of contact.
Capillary action
action (sometimes capillarity, capillary motion, cap
illary effect, or wicking) is the ability of a liquid to
flow in narrow spaces without the assistance of, or
even in opposition to, external forces like gravity.
Absolute dynamic viscosity µ
Viscosity is internal resistance to the fluid flow. It is a
friction between the adjacent layer of fluid.
 It is the property of fluid under motion of fluid.
Newton’s law of viscosity:-
It states that shear stress between the adjacent fluid layer
is directly proportional to rate of change of shear strain or
velocity gradient.
τ = µ (dφ/dt) = µ (du/dt)
Unit of µ -
S.I unit- Pa.sec
C.G.S – Poise
1 Poise = 0.1 Pa. Sec
Dimension – M-1 L-1 T-1
Fluid which follow above law known as Newtonian fluid.
Kinematic Viscosity υ

Kinematic viscosity is the ratio of - absolute (or dynamic) viscosity

to density - a quantity in which no force is involved.
ν = μ / ρ                                                              
ν = kinematic viscosity (m2/s)
μ = absolute or dynamic viscosity (N s/m2)
ρ = density (kg/m3)

Kinematic viscosity is a measure of a fluid's internal resistance to

flow under gravitational forces. It is determined by measuring the
time in seconds, required for a fixed volume of fluid to flow a known
distance by gravity through a capillary within a calibrated
viscometer at a closely controlled temperature. It is also known as
momentum diffusivity.
Units –
M.K.S - m2 / sec
C.G.S – Stokes
1 Stokes = 10-4
Dimension - M0 L 0 T-1
Effect of temperature on viscosity
In liquid viscosity decreases with increases in
temperature of liquid.
For gases viscosity increases with increases in
temperature of gas.
Vapour pressure
Vapour pressure or equilibrium vapour pressure is defined
as the pressure exerted by a vapour in thermodynamic
equilibrium with its condensed phases at a given
temperature in a closed system. The equilibrium vapour
pressure is an indication of a liquid's evaporation rate.
Pv = f(t)

T(. C) Pv (Kpa) for water

0 0.6

25 3.17

100 101.325
Evaporation is rate of liquid leaving from its surface
when the vapour pressure of liquid is less than
surrounding pressure at given temperature.
Pv < Pext
Boiling is high rate of vaporisation when vapour
pressure of liquid is greater than surrounding pressure
at given temp.
Pv >Pext
Boiling can be achieved either by heating (increasing
Pv ) or reducing external pressure.
Non Newtonian fluid
Fluid which do not follow Newton's law of viscosity
known as non Newtonian fluid.

 Fluid statics

It deals with forces applied by fluids at rest or in

rigid-body motion (there is no relative motion
between adjacent layers).
In both instances there will be no shearing stresses in
the fluid, and the only forces that develop on the
surfaces of the particles will be due to the pressure.
The fluid property responsible for those forces is
pressure, which is a normal force exerted by a fluid
per unit area.
Thus, our principal concern is to investigate pressure
and its variation throughout a fluid and the effect of
pressure on submerged surfaces.

Pressure is defined as a normal force exerted by a fluid

per unit area.
Since pressure is defined as force per unit area, it has the
unit of newtons per square meter (N/m2), which is called
a pascal (Pa). That is,
1 Pa = 1 N/m2

The pressure unit pascal is too small for pressures

encountered in practice. Therefore, its multiples
kilopascal (1 kPa =103 Pa) and megapascal (1 MPa =106 Pa)
are commonly used.
Units of pressure
1 bar = 105 Pa where Pa stands for pascal
1 atm = 101325 Pa = 1.01325 bar
1 atm = 760 mm of hg
1 psi = 6.8948 x 103 Pa
@ STP
Pressure = 760 mm of hg or 1.01325bar or 1 atm

Temp = 0. c

@ NTP
Pressure = 760 mm of hg or 1.01325bar or 1 atm

Temp = 15. c
Pressures below atmospheric pressure are called
vacuum pressures and are measured by vacuum
gages that indicate the difference between the
atmospheric pressure and the absolute pressure.
Absolute, gage, and vacuum pressures are all
positive quantities and are related to each other

In thermodynamic relations and tables, absolute

pressure is almost always used. Throughout this
course, the pressure P will denote absolute
pressure unless specified otherwise.
The pressure at a point in a fluid has the same
magnitude in all directions.

It can be shown in the absence of shear forces that

this result is applicable to fluids in motion (rigid
body motion, no relative motion between layers)
as well as fluids at rest.

This important result is known as Pascal’s law

Application of Pascal’s law
• Two hydraulic cylinders of
different areas could be
connected, and the larger
could be used to exert a
proportionally greater
force than that applied to
the smaller.

• Noting that P1 =P2

since both pistons are
at the same level.
Variation of pressure with depth
Pressure in a fluid increases with depth because
more fluid rests on deeper layers, and the effect of
this “extra weight” on a deeper layer is balanced by
an increase in pressure.
If we take point 1 to be at the free surface of a liquid open
to the atmosphere, where the pressure is the atmospheric
pressure Patm then the pressure at a depth h from the free
surface becomes.

 Liquids are essentially incompressible substances, and

thus the variation of density with depth is negligible.
 This is also the case for gases when the elevation change is
not very large.
Variation of pressure with depth
 Pressure is independent of the shape of the
 The pressure is the same at all points on a given
horizontal plane in the same fluid.
The Manometer
 An elevation change of Δz in a fluid at rest corresponds
to ΔP/ρg, which suggests that a fluid column can be
used to measure pressure differences.
 A device based on this principle is called a
manometer, and it is commonly used to measure
small and moderate pressure differences.
 A manometer mainly consists of a glass or plastic U-
tube containing one or more fluids such as mercury,
water, alcohol, or oil.
 To keep the size of the manometer to a manageable
level, heavy fluids such as mercury are used if large
pressure differences are anticipated.
U-tube Manometer
 where ρ is the density of the fluid in the tube. Note that the cross-
sectional area of the tube has no effect on the differential height
h, and thus the pressure exerted by the fluid.
 However, the diameter of the tube should be large enough (more
than a few millimetres) to ensure that the surface tension effect
and thus the capillary rise is negligible.
Hydrostatic Forces on Submerged Plane surfaces
 A plate exposed to a liquid,
such as a gate valve in a dam,
the wall of a liquid storage
tank is subjected to fluid
pressure distributed over its
 On a plane surface, the
hydrostatic forces form a
system of parallel forces, and
we often need to determine
the magnitude of the force
and its point of application,
which is called the center of
Hydrostatic Forces on Submerged Plane
 Consider the top
surface of a flat plate
of arbitrary shape
submerged in a
 The plane of this
surface (normal to
the page) intersects
the horizontal free
surface with an angle
θ, and we take the
line of intersection to
be the x- axis.
The magnitude of the resultant force acting on a
plane surface of a completely submerged plate in a
homogeneous (constant density) fluid is equal to the
product of the pressure PC at the centroid of the
surface and the area A of the surface.
P c = Po + ρghc
Buoyancy, Floatation and stability

 It is a common experience that an object feels lighter and

weighs less in a liquid than it does in air. This can be
demonstrated easily by weighing a heavy object in water by
a waterproof spring scale. Also, objects made of wood or
other light materials float on water.
 These and other observations suggest that a fluid exerts
an upward force on a body immersed in it. This force
that tends to lift the body is called the buoyant force
and is denoted by FB.
 The buoyant force is caused by the increase of pressure in
a fluid with depth.
Buoyancy, Floatation and stability

 Consider, for example, a flat plate

of thickness h submerged in a
liquid of density ρf parallel to the
free surface, as shown in the Fig.
 The area of the top (and also
bottom) surface of the plate is A,
and its distance to the free surface
is s.
 The pressures at the top and
bottom surfaces of the plate are ρf
gs and ρf g(s + h), respectively.
 The difference between these two
forces is a net upward force,
which is the buoyant force,
Buoyancy, Floatation and stability

 where V = hA is the volume of the plate. But the relation ρf gV

is simply the weight of the liquid whose volume is equal to the
volume of the plate.
 Thus, we conclude that the buoyant force acting on the plate is
equal to the weight of the liquid displaced by the plate.
 Note that the buoyant force is independent of the distance of
the body from the free surface. It is also independent of the
density of the solid body.
 This is known as Archimedes’ principle, after the Greek
mathematician Archimedes (287–212 BC), and is expressed as

The buoyant force acting on a body immersed in a fluid is

equal to the weight of the fluid displaced by the body, and it
acts upward through the centroid of the displaced volume.
Buoyancy, Floatation and stability

• Floating bodies are a special case; only a portion of the

body is submerged, with the remainder poking up out of
the free surface.
Buoyancy, Floatation and stability
 A body immersed in a
1) Remains at rest at any
point in the fluid when
its density is equal to
the density of the fluid,
2) Sinks to the bottom
when its density is
greater than the density
of the fluid, and
3) Rises to the surface of
the fluid and floats
when the density of the
body is less than the
density of the fluid
Stability of Immersed and Floating Bodies

 An important application
of the buoyancy concept is
the assessment of the
stability of immersed and
floating bodies with no
external attachments.
 This topic is of great
importance in the design
of ships and submarines
Stability of Immersed and Floating Bodies

 A body is said to be in a stable

equilibrium position if, when displaced,
it returns to its equilibrium position.
 Conversely, it is in an unstable
equilibrium position if, when displaced
(even slightly), it moves to a new
equilibrium position.
 Stability considerations are particularly
important for submerged or floating
bodies since the centers of buoyancy and
gravity do not necessarily coincide.
 A small rotation can result in either a
restoring or overturning couple.
Stability of Immersed and Floating Bodies

 For example, for the completely

submerged body shown in the Fig. ,
which has a center of gravity below
the center of buoyancy, a rotation
from its equilibrium position will
create a restoring couple formed by
the weight , and the buoyant force,
which causes the body to rotate back
to its original position.
 Thus, for this configuration the body
is stable. It is to be noted that as
long as the center of gravity falls
below the center of buoyancy, this
will always be true; that is, the body
is in a stable equilibrium position
with respect to small rotations.
Stability of Immersed and Floating Bodies

 If the center of gravity of the

completely submerged body
is above the center of
buoyancy, the resulting
couple formed by the weight
and the buoyant force will
cause the body to overturn and
move to a new equilibrium
 Thus, a completely submerged
body with its center of
gravity above its center of
buoyancy is in an unstable
equilibrium position.
Stability of Immersed and Floating Bodies

GM = Metacentric height
M above G = Body in stable equilibrium.
GM = BM - BG
M below G = Body in unstable equilibrium.
GM > 0 stable equilibrium

BM = Iyy / V V is immersed volume.

GM = (Iyy / V ) – BG
Moment of inertia of pitching is more than rolling so Ship
design is more concern on rolling than pitching.
Fluid Kinematics :-
Basic concepts
Continuity equation
Fluid acceleration
Motion of fluid elements
Stream function & potential velocity
Classification of Fluid Flows

1) Uniform flow; steady flow

 If we look at a fluid flowing under normal circumstances - a
river for example - the conditions (e.g. velocity, pressure) at
one point will vary from those at another point, then we
have non-uniform flow.
 If the conditions at one point vary as time passes, then we
have unsteady flow.
 Uniform flow: If the flow velocity is the same magnitude
and direction at every point in the flow it is said to be
uniform. That is, the flow conditions DO NOT change with
 Non-uniform: If at a given instant, the velocity is not the
same at every point the flow is non-uniform.
Classification of Fluid Flows

 Steady: A steady flow is one in which the conditions

(velocity, pressure and cross-section) may differ from point
to point but DO NOT change with time.
 Unsteady: If at any point in the fluid, the conditions change
with time, the flow is described as unsteady.
 Combining the above we can classify any flow in to
one of four types:
 Steady uniform flow. Conditions do not change with
position in the stream or with time. An example is the
flow of water in a pipe of constant diameter at constant
Classification of Fluid Flows
 Steady non-uniform flow. Conditions change from point
to point in the stream but do not change with time. An
example is flow in a tapering pipe with constant velocity
at the inlet - velocity will change as you move along the
length of the pipe toward the exit.
 Unsteady uniform flow. At a given instant in time the
conditions at every point are the same, but will change
with time. An example is a pipe of constant diameter
connected to a pump pumping at a constant rate which is
then switched off.
 Unsteady non-uniform flow. Every condition of the flow
may change from point to point and with time at every
point. An example is surface waves in an open channel.
Classification of Fluid Flows
 One-, two-, and three-dimensional flows
A fluid flow is in general a three-dimensional, spatial and time

dependent phenomenon:-

 Whereis the position vector, vectors in are the unit

the Cartesian coordinates, and velocity are the
components in these directions.
As defined above, the flow will be uniform if the velocity

components are independent of spatial position

and will be steady if the velocity components are
independent of time t.
Classification of Fluid Flows
2) One-, two-, and
 Accordingly, a fluid
flow is called three-
dimensional if all three
velocity components
are equally important.
 A three-dimensional
flow problem will
have the most complex
characters and is the
most difficult to solve.
Classification of Fluid Flows
 Viscous and inviscid flows
 An inviscid flow is one in which viscous effects do not
significantly influence the flow and are thus neglected.
 If the shear stresses in a flow are small and act over such
small areas that they do not significantly affect the flow
field the flow can be assumed as inviscid flow.
 In a viscous flow the effects of viscosity are
important and cannot be ignored.
 Based on experience, it has been found that the primary
class of flows, which can be modeled as inviscid flows, is
external flows, that is, flows of an unbounded fluid
which exist exterior to a body. Any viscous effects that
may exist are confined to a thin layer, called a boundary
layer, which is attached to the boundary.
Classification of Fluid Flows
5) Laminar and turbulent flows

In the experiment shown above, a dye is injected into the

middle of pipe flow of water. The dye streaks will vary,
as shown in (b), depending on the flow rate in the pipe.
Classification of Fluid Flows
 The top situation is called laminar flow, and the lower is
turbulent flow, occurring when the flow is sufficiently
slow and fast, respectively.
 In laminar flow the motion of the fluid particles is very
orderly with all particles moving in straight lines parallel to
the pipe wall. There is essentially no mixing of
neighboring fluid particles.
 In sharp contrast, mixing is very significant in
turbulent flow, in which fluid particles move
haphazardly in all directions.
 It is therefore impossible to trace motion of
individual particles in turbulent flow.

Classification of Fluid Flows
 Whether the flow is laminar or not depends on
Reynolds number,

 and it has been demonstrated experimentally that

Continuity equation
 If the fluid is incompressible, e.g. water, with ρ
effectively constant, then .
The Acceleration Field of a Fluid
 Velocity is a vector function of position and time and thus
has three components u, v, and w, each a scalar field in

 This is the most important variable in fluid mechanics:

Knowledge of the velocity vector field is nearly
equivalent to solving a fluid flow problem.
 The acceleration vector field a of the flow is derived
from Newton’s second law by computing the total time
derivative of the velocity vector:
The Acceleration Field of a Fluid

 Summing these into a vector, we obtain the total

The Stream Function
 Consider the simple case of incompressible, two-dimensional
flow in the xy-plane.
 The continuity equation in Cartesian coordinates reduces to

 A clever variable transformation enables us to rewrite this
equation (Eq. 1) in terms of one dependent variable (ψ)
instead of two dependent variables (u and v).
 We define the stream function ψ as

Streamline :-
A streamline at any instant of time is an imaginary
curve or line in the flow field so that the tangent to the
curve at any point represent the direction of the
instantaneous velocity at that point.
Two streamline can not intersect each other.
Equation of streamline V X ds = 0
Path line :-
A path line is the trajectory of a fluid particle of a
given identity.
When flow is steady path line & streamline become
Fluid dynamics:-
Basic equation of motion-
Bernoulli’s equation & its application.
Flow measurements
Momentum equation & its application
Basic Physical Laws of Fluid Mechanics
Systems and Control Volumes
 A system is defined as a quantity of
matter or a region in space chosen for
 The mass or region outside the system
is called the surroundings.
 The real or imaginary surface that
separates the system from its
surroundings is called the boundary.
 The boundary of a system can be
or movable.
 Note that the boundary is the contact surface shared by both the
system and the surroundings. Mathematically speaking, the
21 boundary has zero thickness, and thus it can neither contain any
Control volume
 A control volume is a finite region,
chosen carefully by the analyst for a
particular problem, with open
boundaries through which mass,
momentum, and energy are allowed to
 The analyst makes a budget, or balance,
between the incoming and outgoing
fluid and the resultant changes within
the control volume. Therefore one can
calculate the gross properties (net force,
total power output, total heat transfer,
etc.) with this method.
 With this method, however, we do not
30 care about the details inside the control
Basic Physical Laws of Fluid Mechanics

 The purpose of this is to put the above four basic laws

into the control volume form suitable for arbitrary
regions in a flow: The four basic laws are:
1. Conservation of mass
2. The linear momentum relation
3. The angular momentum relation
4. The energy equation
 Wherever necessary to complete the analysis we also
introduce a state relation such as the perfect-gas law.
 We shall derive the three basic control-volume
relations in fluid mechanics:
1. The principle of conservation of mass, from
which the continuity equation is developed;
2.The principle of conservation of energy, from
which the energy equation is derived;
3.The principle of conservation of linear momentum,
from which equations evaluating dynamic forces
exerted by flowing fluids may be established.
The Bernoulli Equation
 The Bernoulli equation is an approximate relation
between pressure, velocity, and elevation, and is valid in
regions of steady, incompressible flow where net frictional
forces are negligible.
 Despite its simplicity, it has proven to be a very powerful
tool in fluid mechanics.
 Applying the Bernoulli equation to any two
points on the same streamline, we have
Application of Bernoulli’s equation
 Various problems on the one-dimensional flow of an ideal
fluid can be solved by jointly using Bernoulli’s theorem and
the continuity equation.
Venturi, nozzle and orifice meters
 The Venturi, nozzle, and orifice-meters are three similar
types of devices for measuring discharge in a pipe.
 The Venturi meter consists of a rapidly converging section,
which increases the velocity of flow and hence reduces the
 It then returns to the original dimensions of the pipe by
a gently diverging 'diffuser' section.
 By measuring the pressure differences the discharge can be
Application of Bernoulli’s equation
 We assume the flow is
steady, inviscid, and
between points (1) and
(2). The Bernoulli
equation becomes
Application of Bernoulli’s equation
 If we assume the velocity profiles are uniform at sections
(1) and (2), the continuity equation can be written as

 Where is the small flow area at section (2).

Combination of these two equations results in the
following theoretical flowrate

 Thus for a given flow geometry and the flowrate

can be determined if the pressure difference, is
Application of Bernoulli’s equation- The Pitot Tube
 The Pitot Tube is a device used for measuring the velocity
of flow at any point in a pipe or a channel.
 Principle: If the velocity at any point decreases, the
pressure at that point increases due to the conservation of
the kinetic energy into pressure energy. In simplest form, the
Pitot tube consists of a glass tube, bent at right angles.
The Momentum Equation and its Application
 On applying Newton's second law of motion to the control

Note that this equation

follows from the principle of conservation of linear
momentum: resultant force on the control volume is
balanced by the net rate of momentum flux )
out through the control surface.
Application of the momentum Equation :-
Force on a pipe nozzle

 A simple application of the momentum equation is to find

the force on the nozzle at the outlet of a pipe. Because the
fluid is contracted at the nozzle forces are induced in the
nozzle. Anything holding the nozzle (e.g. a fireman) must
be strong enough to withstand these forces.