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■The usual conduct of research is based

on sample of some population.
Inferential statistics are used to make
conclusions about the population based
on the findings from the population. It
is generally assumed that the sample is
randomly selected from the population.
Sampling is critical is critical in any
psychological research.
■ The drawing of samples that accurately represent
the population from which they are taken and to
which inferences will be made.
■ This conceptualization of the sampling process
provides guidance to researchers about which 
sampling design to choose in the particular
circumstances and how best to account for subsets
of cases that are not well represented (or are
overrepresented) in the population (e.g., by using 
■ The first step in sampling is to determine is the
sample frame.

■ The sampling frame is the list that is used to select

from a population.
If the research being conducted requires to
select students from a population of all the
students at a university, the best sampling frame
would be a list of all registered students in the said
Sampling Methods
■Probability sampling - occurs when the
researcher can specify the probability
that each member of the population
will be selected for the sample.
■Nonprobability sampling - occurs when
the researcher cannot specify these
Probability Sampling
■ Most survey researches likely use some form of
probability sampling to make accurate estimates
about what is true in a particular population, and
these estimates are most accurate when based on a
probability sample.
■ For example, it is important for survey researchers to
base their estimates of election outcomes—which are
often decided by only a few percentage points—on
probability samples of likely registered voters.
■ The different probability sampling methods are
random sampling, systematic sampling,
stratified sampling and cluster sampling.
Random Probability Sampling
■ A procedure whereby a sample is drawn such that each
member of the population has an equal probability of
being included in that sample.
■ If the population is small, putting each member’s name in
a hat or “draw lots” and drawing out the number of names
can be done. However, the same would not work in large
■ There is a difference between random sampling and
random assignment. Random assignment means that
participants have been independently assigned to groups.
Imagine that we have selected 40 participants for a two
group experiment. We could use a table of random
numbers to assign 20 participants to the experimental
group and 20 to a control group. This would be an
Random Sampling
Random Assignment
Systematic Probability Sampling
■ This method is done by of choosing the nth member
of the population.
■ Systematic sampling is quick and convenient when
you have a complete list of the members of your
population (for example, this one of the members of
Congress). However, if there’s some kind of pattern
to the original list, then bias may creep in to your
statistics. For example, if a list of people is ordered
as MFMFMFMF, then choosing every 10th number
will give you a sample consisting entirely of females.
Systematic Probability Sampling
Stratified Probability Sampling
■ The population is divided into different subgroups or “strata”
(usually based on demographic characteristics) and then a random
sample is taken from each “stratum.”
■ Ex: Gathering opinions about government support for social
workers. Social workers with different amounts of experience in the
field might have different opinions about this issue. One way to get
a fairer assessment of the workers’ opinions about this issue would
be to stratify the sample by length of experience. Suppose there
are 20% of the social workers in this population have 10 years or
more of experience, 40% have 5 to 10 years, and 40% have less
than 5 years of experience. With stratified sampling, researcher can
randomly select 20% of your sample from the most experienced
group (your first stratum) and 40% from the other two groups (or
strata), respectively. In this way, we guarantee that our sample
reflects the numerical composition of the social worker population
by purposely selecting from each stratum
Stratified Probability Sampling
Cluster Probability Sampling
■ Larger clusters of individuals are randomly sampled
and then individuals within each cluster are randomly
sampled. Cluster sampling is especially useful for
surveys that involve face-to-face interviewing because
it minimizes the amount of traveling that the
interviewers must do. It is also useful if the list of
members of the population is not available.
■ Ex: The list of all social workers in the city is not
available. Agencies employing social workers can be
identified and then randomly selection of agencies
could be done called clusters. You would include all the
social workers in each agency/ cluster in your sample
Cluster Probability Sampling
Nonprobability Sampling
■ Nonprobability sampling occurs when the researcher cannot
specify these probabilities. Most psychological research
involves nonprobability sampling..
■ It is impossible to specify the probability of selecting any one
individual. Everyone in the population does not have an equal
chance of being selected because the probability of selection
is unknown. This is important because it means that the
sample may or may not be representative of the population,
and this can influence the external validity of the study. This is
not usually considered a problem in hypothesis testing, where
our primary goal is not to describe a population but to test the
prediction of a theory.
Convenience Sampling
■ Convenience sampling—studying individuals who happen to be
nearby and willing to participate—is a very common form of
nonprobability sampling used in psychological research.
■ Convenience sampling is not appropriate for all research. If a
researcher wants to describe the attitude or perception of Filipinos
about the Enhanced Community Quarantine because of the Covid19
scare, it is not enough to sample the researcher’s family members. In
descriptive research, it is critical that the sample is representative of
the population, and probability sampling technique may be ore
Convenience Sampling
Quota Sampling
■Quota sampling is like convenience
sampling, but the goal is to select
participants with particular characteristics
until there is enough.
■Ex: Having equal numbers of each
socioeconomic status category in your
Quota Sampling
Referral Sampling
■ Also called the snowball sampling because one
participant tells his or her friends, and they tell their
friends, and so on, and so on
■ If the population the researcher is interested in is difficult
to locate, then once you have found one individual, you
could ask him or her to refer others to you.
■ Ex: If a researcher wants to study the marital
relationship dynamics of childless couples, it is not
possible to establish a sampling frame so referral may
Referral Sampling
■ The number participants depend on the power of the
statisitics. Parametric statistics such as the t test and
analysis of variance (ANOVA) have a great deal of power,
but chi-square, a nonparametric procedure, has relatively
low power.
■ The sample size also depends on the research design. If
you want to perform a number of statistical comparisons,
you will need a larger sample. For example, if your study
has two independent variables, each with three levels, and
you also want to compare women and men, you may have
3 × 3 × 2 = 18 groups (three levels of the first
independent variable × three levels of the second
independent variable × two sexes); with only 10
participants in each group, you can do the math! Similarly,
■ Significant findings are not always guaranteed by large sample size. If
the relationship between the manipulated variable and the behavior
was strong and control was tight, then a significant result might be
found with quite small samples. In other words, effect size was large.
On the other hand, if your manipulated variable has a subtle effect on
the dependent variable, then you will require a larger sample to
achieve statistical significance
■ With larger samples, greater variability in the data may still lead to a
significant result. This is why larger samples are used in field
research, where we typically have less control than in the laboratory.
A larger sample can compensate for greater variability. The weaker
the manipulation and the weaker the experimental control, the larger
the samples must be for significance to be reached. In other words,
when the effect size is small, larger samples are needed.