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on sample of some population.

Inferential statistics are used to make

conclusions about the population based

on the findings from the population. It

is generally assumed that the sample is

randomly selected from the population.

Sampling is critical is critical in any

psychological research.

Sampling

■ The drawing of samples that accurately represent

the population from which they are taken and to

which inferences will be made.

■ This conceptualization of the sampling process

provides guidance to researchers about which

sampling design to choose in the particular

circumstances and how best to account for subsets

of cases that are not well represented (or are

overrepresented) in the population (e.g., by using

weights).

■ The first step in sampling is to determine is the

sample frame.

from a population.

Example:

If the research being conducted requires to

select students from a population of all the

students at a university, the best sampling frame

would be a list of all registered students in the said

university.

Sampling Methods

■Probability sampling - occurs when the

researcher can specify the probability

that each member of the population

will be selected for the sample.

■Nonprobability sampling - occurs when

the researcher cannot specify these

probabilities.

Probability Sampling

■ Most survey researches likely use some form of

probability sampling to make accurate estimates

about what is true in a particular population, and

these estimates are most accurate when based on a

probability sample.

■ For example, it is important for survey researchers to

base their estimates of election outcomes—which are

often decided by only a few percentage points—on

probability samples of likely registered voters.

■ The different probability sampling methods are

random sampling, systematic sampling,

stratified sampling and cluster sampling.

Random Probability Sampling

■ A procedure whereby a sample is drawn such that each

member of the population has an equal probability of

being included in that sample.

■ If the population is small, putting each member’s name in

a hat or “draw lots” and drawing out the number of names

can be done. However, the same would not work in large

population.

■ There is a difference between random sampling and

random assignment. Random assignment means that

participants have been independently assigned to groups.

Imagine that we have selected 40 participants for a two

group experiment. We could use a table of random

numbers to assign 20 participants to the experimental

group and 20 to a control group. This would be an

Random Sampling

Random Assignment

Systematic Probability Sampling

■ This method is done by of choosing the nth member

of the population.

■ Systematic sampling is quick and convenient when

you have a complete list of the members of your

population (for example, this one of the members of

Congress). However, if there’s some kind of pattern

to the original list, then bias may creep in to your

statistics. For example, if a list of people is ordered

as MFMFMFMF, then choosing every 10th number

will give you a sample consisting entirely of females.

Systematic Probability Sampling

Stratified Probability Sampling

■ The population is divided into different subgroups or “strata”

(usually based on demographic characteristics) and then a random

sample is taken from each “stratum.”

■ Ex: Gathering opinions about government support for social

workers. Social workers with different amounts of experience in the

field might have different opinions about this issue. One way to get

a fairer assessment of the workers’ opinions about this issue would

be to stratify the sample by length of experience. Suppose there

are 20% of the social workers in this population have 10 years or

more of experience, 40% have 5 to 10 years, and 40% have less

than 5 years of experience. With stratified sampling, researcher can

randomly select 20% of your sample from the most experienced

group (your first stratum) and 40% from the other two groups (or

strata), respectively. In this way, we guarantee that our sample

reflects the numerical composition of the social worker population

by purposely selecting from each stratum

Stratified Probability Sampling

Cluster Probability Sampling

■ Larger clusters of individuals are randomly sampled

and then individuals within each cluster are randomly

sampled. Cluster sampling is especially useful for

surveys that involve face-to-face interviewing because

it minimizes the amount of traveling that the

interviewers must do. It is also useful if the list of

members of the population is not available.

■ Ex: The list of all social workers in the city is not

available. Agencies employing social workers can be

identified and then randomly selection of agencies

could be done called clusters. You would include all the

social workers in each agency/ cluster in your sample

Cluster Probability Sampling

Nonprobability Sampling

■ Nonprobability sampling occurs when the researcher cannot

specify these probabilities. Most psychological research

involves nonprobability sampling..

■ It is impossible to specify the probability of selecting any one

individual. Everyone in the population does not have an equal

chance of being selected because the probability of selection

is unknown. This is important because it means that the

sample may or may not be representative of the population,

and this can influence the external validity of the study. This is

not usually considered a problem in hypothesis testing, where

our primary goal is not to describe a population but to test the

prediction of a theory.

Convenience Sampling

■ Convenience sampling—studying individuals who happen to be

nearby and willing to participate—is a very common form of

nonprobability sampling used in psychological research.

■ Convenience sampling is not appropriate for all research. If a

researcher wants to describe the attitude or perception of Filipinos

about the Enhanced Community Quarantine because of the Covid19

scare, it is not enough to sample the researcher’s family members. In

descriptive research, it is critical that the sample is representative of

the population, and probability sampling technique may be ore

appropriate

Convenience Sampling

Quota Sampling

■Quota sampling is like convenience

sampling, but the goal is to select

participants with particular characteristics

until there is enough.

■Ex: Having equal numbers of each

socioeconomic status category in your

sample

Quota Sampling

Referral Sampling

■ Also called the snowball sampling because one

participant tells his or her friends, and they tell their

friends, and so on, and so on

■ If the population the researcher is interested in is difficult

to locate, then once you have found one individual, you

could ask him or her to refer others to you.

■ Ex: If a researcher wants to study the marital

relationship dynamics of childless couples, it is not

possible to establish a sampling frame so referral may

work.

Referral Sampling

SAMPLE AND EFFECT SIZE

■ The number participants depend on the power of the

statisitics. Parametric statistics such as the t test and

analysis of variance (ANOVA) have a great deal of power,

but chi-square, a nonparametric procedure, has relatively

low power.

■ The sample size also depends on the research design. If

you want to perform a number of statistical comparisons,

you will need a larger sample. For example, if your study

has two independent variables, each with three levels, and

you also want to compare women and men, you may have

3 × 3 × 2 = 18 groups (three levels of the first

independent variable × three levels of the second

independent variable × two sexes); with only 10

participants in each group, you can do the math! Similarly,

SAMPLE AND EFFECT SIZE

■ Significant findings are not always guaranteed by large sample size. If

the relationship between the manipulated variable and the behavior

was strong and control was tight, then a significant result might be

found with quite small samples. In other words, effect size was large.

On the other hand, if your manipulated variable has a subtle effect on

the dependent variable, then you will require a larger sample to

achieve statistical significance

■ With larger samples, greater variability in the data may still lead to a

significant result. This is why larger samples are used in field

research, where we typically have less control than in the laboratory.

A larger sample can compensate for greater variability. The weaker

the manipulation and the weaker the experimental control, the larger

the samples must be for significance to be reached. In other words,

when the effect size is small, larger samples are needed.

THANK YOU

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