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TEST

CORRECTION
(STORM
HYDROGRAPH)
1 (A) (I) DEFINE THE HYDROLOGICAL TERMS
LAG TIME AND RISING LIMB. (4)

 Lagtime is the time difference between the peak rainfall and peak
discharge/flow on a hydrograph. (2)
 Rising limb is the part of the discharge curve that shows a rapid increase of
discharge from the onset of the precipitation/rainfall until peak discharge is
reached. (2)
(II) BRIEFLY EXPLAIN ONE CONDITION
THAT MAY PRODUCE A RISE IN THE LEVEL
OF BASEFLOW ON A STORM HYDROGRAPH.
 Baseflow occurs as a result of infiltration and percolation to groundwater
level. It is likely to increase where conditions encourage infiltration and
percolation such as steady rainfall where infiltration exceeds intensity (e.g.
long periods of drizzle) or where soils/geology are permeable thus water
infiltrated into soil and later percolate into the ground as ground water.
 Another reason could be due to dense vegetation cover where rainwater
intercepted on leaves of plants or trees will later be infiltrated into the soil
via stem flow or throughfall and further move downward into the ground
via percolation and later stored as groundwater. This will produce a rise in
the level of baseflow.
(B) EXPLAIN HOW TWO DRAINAGE BASIN
CHARACTERISTICS CAN INFLUENCE THE
SHAPE OF A STORM HYDROGRAPH. (8)
Catch
More Drainage Basin sizes:
Catch less
Precipitation Precipitation
(high peak Large (Low peak
discharge) Small discharge)

Longer lagtime High peak


Shorter
discharge
lagtime

Shorter time
to reach the
Longer time Stream due to shorter distance
to reach the (shorter Lagtime)
Stream (longer
Fig. 1 Storm Hydrograph of small & Large
Lagtime) Drainage basin.
Drainage Basin shape

Circular DrainageBasin Elongated Drainage Basin

Fig. 2 Storm Hydrograph of Elongated &


Circular Drainage basin.
Drainage basin with a steep slope

STEEPNESS OF SLOPE Much of the water overflow on the surface as


surface run-off flowing into the river channel more
Quickly and less water infiltrates into the soil.
Shorter lagtime
Steep It will produce a storm hydrograph with shorter
slope lagtime and high peak discharge, and
Steep rising and falling limbs. (Flashy S.H)

Gentle
slope Drainage basin with a gentle slope
Longer
lagtime
Much of the water will infiltrates into the soil thus
less water overflow on the surface as
surface run-off flowing into the river channel at a slowe
rate.

It will produce a storm hydrograph with longer


Fig.3 Storm Hydrograph of Steep & Gentlelagtime and low peak discharge, and
Slope Drainage basin. gentle rising and falling limbs. (non-flashy S.H)
PERMEABLE &
IMPERMEABLE SOILS:

Clay

Sand
(C) EXPLAIN HOW URBANISATION CAN
AFFECT RIVER CHANNEL FLOWS. [10]

 What?
 How it affect flow?
 How and why it affect flow?

-impermeable ground, drainage


-deforestation
-prevent flood –deepen & widen the river channel.