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STONE MASONRY

STONE MASONRY
DEFINITION-
The masonry work which is constructed in
stones is known as stone masonry.
USES
▪ Stone walls,foundation,columns,staircase.
▪Ornamental work like arches,facingwall.
TECHNICAL TERMS/C0MPONENTS
1. NATURAL BED- It is the horizontal unit or
plane of stone which is also known as course.
2. HEADER- It is a full stone unit which is laid in
such a way that its length is perpendicular to
the face of the wall.
3. STRETCHER- It is a that its length is along or
parallel to the face of wall.
4. CORBEL- It is the projecting stone work which
is usually provided to serve as support for
roof truss ,beam,weather shed et
5.CORNICE
It is a course of stone provided at the top of
the wall, generally constructed to dispose off
rain water .
6.COPING- It is laid at the top of wall to protect the wall
from rain water,provided at top of compound wall or
parapet wall.
WEATHERING
 The upper surface of stones used for sill,
cornice and coping is dressed in a slopping
way so that the water may flow off easily.
This is termed as weathering.
8.THROATING- A groove is provided on the underside of
sill, cornice and coping so that the rain water can be
discharged clear of the wall surface.

9.PLINTH- It is the projecting course provided


at the ground level.
10.THROUGH STONE- In stonework , some
stones at regular intervals are placed right
across the wall. Such stones are know as the
through stone.
STONE MASONRY
RUBBLE MASONRY ASHLAR MASONRY
1. Coursed Rubble 1. Ashlars fine
2. Un coursed Rubble 2. Ashlars rough tooled
3. Random Rubble 3. Ashlars rock faced

4. Dry Rubble 4. Ashlars chamfered


5. Polygonal Rubble 5. Ashlars block-in-
6. Flint Rubble course
(I)RUBBLE MAONRY
In this type of construction, the stones of
irregular size are used. The are obtain from
quarry, are taken in use in same form or
they are broken and shaped in suitable
sizes by means of hammer as the work
proceed. The strength of rubble masonry
mainly depends on three factors:
 The quality of mortar
 The use of long through stones at

frequent interval.
1 COURSED ROUBLE MASONRY
 This method of construction is the same as
uncoursed masonry except that the courses
varying from 30 to 45cm thick & all the courses
are not same height
 For the construction of this type of masonry,

quoins are built first and line is stretched


between the tops of quoins. The tervening
walling is then brought up to this level by using
different size of stone.
 This masonry is further divided into 3 category

(1)coursed rubble masonry I sort


(2)coursed rubble masonry II sort
(3)coursed rubble masonry III sort
2.UNCOURSED RUBBLE MASONRY
 This is the roughest & cheapest form of stone
walling.
 In this type of masonry, the stones used are

of widely different sizes.


 This type of masonry is used for the

construction of compound wall ,godowns


,garages, labour quarters etc.
 It gives a increased strength & better

appearance.
3RANDOM RUBBLE MASONRY
 In this type of rubble masonry, the stones of
irregular size & shapes are used as shone in
fig. bellow.
 In this masonry the stones are arranged so as

to have a good appearance.


 To construct a this type of masonry wall,

more skill is required.


4.DRY RUBBLE MASONRY
 Dry rubble masonry is that rubble masonry,
made to courses, in which mortar is not used
in the joints.
 This type of construction is the cheapest &

requires more skill in construction.


 This may be used for non load bearing walls,

such as compound wall etc.


5.POLYGONAL RUBBLE MASONRY
In this type of rubble masonry, the stones are
hammer dressed & the stones selected for
face work are dressed in an irregular
polygonal shape. Thus the face joints are
seen running in all direction.
As the stone are of irregular shape, it is
difficult to adjust them with regard to
stability & appearance of the work as a whole.
So more skill is required in the construction
of this type of masonry.
6.FLINTH RUBBLE MASONRY
In this type of rubble masonry stones used
are flints which are irregularly shaped
nodules of silica.
The width & thickness vary from 80mm to
150mm & length vary from 150mm to
300mm.The are extremely hard. But they are
brittle & therefore they break easily.
This type of masonry is used at place where
the flints are available readily &economically.
II.ASHLAR MASONRY:
In this type of construction, the square and
rectangular block of stones are used.
The courses are not necessarily of the same
height. The height of stones varies from
250mm to 300mm.
The length of stones should be at least equal
to half that the height.
Different type of ashlar masonry are
described
1.ASHLAR FINE MASONRY
In this type of ashlar masonry, the bed, sides
faces are finely chisel dressed.
The stones are arranged in proper bond &
thickness of mortar joints does not exceed
3mm.
This type of construction gives perfectly
smooth appearance, but it is costly in
construction
2.ASHLAR ROUGH TOOLED MASONRY
In this type of ashlar masonry, the beds &
sides are finely chiseled. But the face is made
rough by means of tools.
This strip, about 25mm wide & made by
means of a chisel, is provided around the
perimeter of every stone exposed for view.
The thickness of mortar joints does not
exceed 6mm.
This type of masonry is also known as
bastard ashlar.
3.ASHLAR ROCK FACED MASONRY
In this type of ashlar masonry, a strip of about
25mm wide & made by means of a chisel, is
provided around the perimeter of every stone
exposed for view as in case of rough tooled
ashlar. But remaining portion of the face is left
in the same form as received from the quarry.
Only projection on the face, known as brushing,
exceeding 80mm are removed by hammer.
This type of construction gives massive
appearance.
4.ASHLAR CHAMFERED MASONRY
In this type of ashlar masonry,the strip is
provided as ashlar rock masonry.But it is
chamfered or bevelled at an angle of 45
degrees by means of chisel for adepth of
about 25mm.Another strip is then provided
on the remaining exposes fase of the stone.
A neat appearance of the grooved joint is
obtained with the help of this type of
construction.
5.ASHLAR BLOCK IN COURSE MASONRY
This type of ashlar masonry occupies an
intermediate position between the rubble
masonry & ashlar masonry.
The face of the stone is generally hammer
dressed and the thic kness of the mortar joints
does not exceed 6mm.
Depth of the courses are varies from 200mm to
300mm.
This type of construction is used for heavy
engg. Works such as retaining wall,sea wall
etc.It may adopted for theatre,bridge,railway
station
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