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WHAT IS PERCEPTION??

Perception
• Perception is a process by which individuals
organize and interpret their sensory
impressions in order to give meaning to their
environment.
• Perception can also be defined as “a process
by which individuals organise and interpret
their sensory impressions in order to give
meaning to their environment”.
• Perception may be defined as “a cognitive
process by which people attend to incoming
stimuli, organise and interpret such stimuli
into behaviour”.
SIGNIFICANCE OF PERCEPTION

• important in understanding human behavior


• needs of various people can be determined
• important for the manager who wants to avoid making errors when dealing
with people and events in the work setting
• Perception builds character
• Helps in trying to see things from their perspective
• helps in interpreting the world around us
• Helps understand a persons attitude
Factors Influencing Perception

• The Perceiver

• The Object Or Target Being Perceived

• The Context or The Situation


• The Perceiver

• Needs and Motives


• Self Concept
• Past Experience
• Current Psychological State
• Beliefs
• Expectations
• Cultural Upbringing
• The Object Or Target
• Physical characteristics
• Persons, objects or events that are similar to each other tend to be
grouped together.
• Manner of communication
• The status or occupation of a person
• The situation
• The surrounding environment and the elements present in it influence our
perception.
• Location of a given event is also very important factor in determining the
behaviour.
ATTRIBUTION THEORY OF
PERCEPTION
COVARIATION MODEL - KELLY - ONLY THIS MODEL IS
IMPORTANT
• Consensus: the extent to which other people behave in the same
way in a similar situation. E.g.,  Alison smokes a cigarette when
she goes out for a meal with her friend.  If her friend smokes, her
behavior is high in consensus. If only Alison smokes, it is low.

• Distinctiveness: the extent to which the person behaves in the


same way in similar situations. Where a persons behaviour is
same for all tasks or his behaviour varies from one task to the
other. If Alison only smokes when she is out with friends, her
behavior is high in distinctiveness. If she smokes at any time or
place, distinctiveness is low.

• Consistency: the extent to which the person behaves like this


every time the situation occurs.  If Alison only smokes when she
is out with friends, consistency is high.  If she only smokes on one
special occasion, consistency is low.
THREE DIMENSIONAL MODEL - BERNARD WEINER
– THIS IS NOT IMPORTANT
SITUATIONAL

PERSONALITY
THREE CASUAL DIMENSIONS

• Locus - Internal & External


• Locus dimension refers to the perception of the cause of any event as internal or
external.
• Stability
• Stability dimension refers to whether the cause of the event is stable or unstable
across time and situations.
• Employee Work Experience - Stable & Unstable
• Controllability
• Controllability dimension refers to whether or not the cause of any event is
under the control of the learner.
LOCUS OF CONTROL OF
ATTRIBUTION – AT AN
ORGANISATION LEVEL
• Chief source of factors that creates a result or gives rise to an outcome in
the employee’s perception
• The outcome or result could depend on either external or internal factors
• Understanding the locus of control as perceived by various employees
helps in better understanding of their behaviour at work
• Locus of control model in work settings is helpful in understanding how
employees and managers behave in a work environment
• Employee performance
• Manager performance
• Self & Subordinates
FACTORS
INFLUENCING
PERCEPTUAL
SELECTIVITY
(*IMP)
INTERNAL FACTORS

a) Habit
b) Motivation and interest
c) Learning
d) Organizational and specialization
e) Economic and social background
f) Personality
EXTERNAL FACTORS

a) Intensity
b) Size
c) Contrast
d) Repetition
e) Motion
f) Novelty and familiarity
g) Situations
PERCEPTUAL PROCESS
(PROCESS OF INTERPRETING )
• Perceptual set
• Previously held beliefs about an objects influence an individuals perceptions of similar objects
• Attribution
• Refers to the process by which the individual assigns causes to the behaviour he or she conceives
• Stereotyping
• Tendency to assign attributes to someone solely on the basis of a category of [people e to which they belong
• Halo Effect
• Tendency of perceiving people in terms of good and bad and ascribing all good qualities to one who is liked and
all bad qualities to another who is disliked.
• Perceptual Context
• Foe example organisational culture and structure is a context base on which worked and mangers will perceive
the organisation.
• Perceptual Defence
• AN individual is likely to put up a defence when confronted with conflicting unacceptable or threatening stimuli
• Projection
• People tend to see in another person traits that they themselves possess
IMPRESSION
MANAGEMENT
IMPRESSION MANAGEMENT

• Impression management is a conscious or subconscious process in which


people attempt to influence the perceptions of other people about a person,
object or event by regulating and controlling information in social interaction.
• The most common types of impression management have to do with self-
presentation, and in the business world, the presentation of merchandise.
• Two main motives we have for trying to manage the impressions of others: the
instrumental and the expressive.
• The instrumental motive includes the desire for increased self-esteem. The
fundamental meaning of instrumental motivation is the gaining of rewards. 
• An expressive motive comes down to wanting to be in charge of one's personal
behavior and identity. It can come from a response to social norms, expectations or
restrictions, and it seeks to show others something differen
IMPRESSION MANAGEMENT
STRATEGIES/TECHNIQUES
• Ingratiation
• Complementing others in order to appear likable. Also called flattery.
• Intimidation
• Threatens others
• Supplication
• Appearing needy and asking for assistance. Acts Like being overloaded with work.
• Self promotion
• Highlighting your qualities and downplaying your deficits. Being Competent
• Exemplification
• Dedicated employee .
INTERPERSONAL
PERCEPTION
INTERPERSONAL PERCEPTION

• Interpersonal perception is the process of making meaning from the people


in our environment and our relationships with them. 
• Peoples words and actions have meaning to you based on the way you
interpret them.