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Pengantar Teknik

Elektro
Kuliah I
Engineering is the profession in which a
knowledge of the mathematical and
natural sciences, gained by study,
experience and practice, is applied with
judgment to develop ways to utilize,
economically, the materials and forces
of nature for the benefit of mankind.

-- ABET Handbook, 1996


Engineers and Scientists

 “The scientist explores what is. The engineer


creates what has not been.”
-- Theadore Von Karmen

 Engineers :
 SOLVE PROBLEMS
 INVENT
 ENSURE OUR SAFETY
A Definition of Technology

 Technology comes from three Greek


words with the same root:
 Tekhnetos: man-made
 Tekhne (noun): skill
 Tekhnasthai: to devise artificially.
Industry Perspective on
Skills of Engineering Graduates

 problem solving  technical skills


 communication skills  continue learning
 ethics/professionalism  business/mgt
 positive attitude  computer skills
 math/science skills  world affairs
The Branches of Engineering

Agricultural Building
Biological Civil
Chemical Construction
Environmental
Communications
Food
Computer
Forestry
Electrical
Materials Civil
Electromechanical Systems
Plastics
Water Resource Electronic Systems
Electrical Software
Chemical

Aerospace
Automotive
Biomedical Industrial
Mechanical
Engineering Engineering Integrated
Naval Mechanical Management Production
Systems

Gas
Geological Engineering
Geotechnical
Geomatics Sciences Engineering Chemistry
Metallurgical Engineering Math
Mineral Engineering Physics
Mining
Oil
Petroleum
All about EE

 Electrical Engineering is only 100 years old


 Electrical engineering is a discipline that
integrates many other disciplines, such as
physics, chemistry, mathematics, computers,
electronics, optics, electromagnetics
communications, analysis of signal and
images, remote sensing…….
Electrical Engineering

Electrical engineering, the discipline that


employs the largest number of engineers,
covers everything related to electrical devices,
systems, and the use of electricity. Electrical
engineers work on power plants, computers, and
other electrical devices. Electrical engineers are
designing the dashboard computers that will
monitor engine functions on automobiles of the
future.

From American Society for Engineering Education (ASEE) web site:


http://www.asee.org/precollege/disciplines.cfm
What is electrical engineering?

The study of ELECTRICITY along with its


numerous applications
A brief history
In 1600, William Gilbert called
the property of attracting
particles after being rubbed
“electricus”.

De Magnete was a treatise of


electricity and magnetism,
noting a long list of elements
that could be electrified.

Gilbert invented the versorium,


a device that detected
statically-charged bodies

William Gilbert, arguably the first electrical engineer

A versorium
A brief history
1800 – voltaic pile developed by Alessandro
Volta, a precursor to the battery

Voltaic pile

1831 – Michael Faraday discovers


electromagnetic induction

Circuits containing inductors

1873 – Electricity and Magnetism


published by James Maxwell, describing
a theory for electromagnetism
Maxwell’s equations
A brief history
1888 – Heinrich Hertz transmits and
receives radio signals

Spark-gap transmitter

1941 – Konrad Zuse introduces the first


ever programmable computer

Z3 computer

1947 – invention of transistor

Transistor
A brief history
1958 – integrated circuit
developed by Jack Kilby

Integrated circuits

1968 – first microprocessor is


developed

Microprocessor
Electrical systems have two
main objectives:

 To gather, store, process, transport, and


present information

 To distribute and convert energy between


various forms
Branches of Electrical Engineering

 Electrical Engineering Specialties


 Communications
 Computer
 Power Systems
 Electromechanical Systems
 Electronic Systems
 Software
 Instrumentation
 Photonics
 Sensor
 Signal Processing
Examples of Types of Industries

 Communications
 Computers
 Automotive
 Electronics
 Instrumentation
 Integrated Circuits
 Automation
 Medical
 Power
 Aerospace

From Milwaukee School of Engineering:


http://www.msoe.edu/eecs/ee/eeprofession3.shtml
Examples of the Types of Jobs

 Research new ideas


 Develop new products
 Design products or equipment
 Project leader
 Computer automation
 Computer modeling/simulations
 Technical marketing
 Manufacturing/production
From Milwaukee School of Engineering:
http://www.msoe.edu/eecs/ee/eeprofession3.shtml
Why Pursue a Career in
Engineering?

 Involvement in many industries


 Can you think of an industry that does not involve
engineers???
 Monetary benefits
 Job Security
 4% Unemployment (highest ever)
 Definite need for engineers
 Passion and motivation
 A career with growing potential
Examples of Specific Career
Opportunities
 Design Engineer:
 Use computer simulations and computer modeling to design high
frequency circuits for digital cellular phones.
 Research Engineer:
 Invent new optoelectronic devices to build optical computers.
 Project Engineer:
 Lead a team of engineers from different engineering disciplines to
design, test, and manufacture an undersea optical amplifier.
 Test Engineer:
 Write and implement the computer program to do automated testing of
an electronic ignition system.
 Application Engineer:
 Define and integrate existing equipment to solve customer problems.
 System Engineer:
 Defines and develops a communications network.
From Milwaukee School of Engineering: http://www.msoe.edu/eecs/ee/eeprofession3.shtml
Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor, 2010
Earnings distribution by engineering specialty, May 2008

Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor, 2010


Average Starting Salaries: July 2009 survey by the
National Association of Colleges and Employers

Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor, 2010


So where is the field now?
Fields of study
Power:
Creation, storage, and distribution of electricity

Control:
Design of dynamic systems and controllers for the
systems

Electronics/Microelectronics:
Design of integrated circuits, microprocessors, etc.

Signal Processing: Analysis of signals


Fields of study
Telecommunications:
Design of transmission systems (voice, data)

Computer:
Design and development of computer systems

Instrumentation:
Design of sensors and data acquisition equipment
Electrical Engineering
Application Areas

 Power Systems Engineering


 Electronics / Microelectronics
 Electromagnetics
 Digital Signal Processing and Control
Systems
 Communications
Power Systems Engineering

Academics Research
 Electric Power  Ultracapacitors
Generation, (energy storage)
Transmission and  New Power Systems
Distribution  Electronic Ships
 Motors, Transformers,  Simulating and
Generators Modeling Power and
Motor Systems
 Alternative Energy
 Supercooled Devices
 Supercooled Devices
 Power Electronics
Electronics / Microelectronics

Academics Research
 Analog and Digital  Ultracapacitors
Circuits (energy storage)
 Electronic Devices  Mixed Signal Devices
 Microelectronic  Computer Modeling
Fabrication  Smart Sensors
 Implementation
Electromagnetics

Academics Research
 Magnetic Fields  Radar/Sonar Design
 Antennas  Propagation in Optical
 Optical Transmission Fibers
 Radars  Millimeter Waves
 Motors  Lightning Surges
 Electric Power  Directional and
Adaptive Antennas
Digital Signal Processing and
Control Systems
Academics Research
 Design and Analysis  Speech Processing
 Discrete and  Neural Networks
Continuous Signals  Intelligent
Transportation Systems
 Controlling Physical
Systems (e.g. robots)  Robots
 Autonomous Navigation
 Information Encoding
and Decoding  Antilock Brakes
Communications

Academics Research
 Analog and Digital  Fiber Optic Sensors
Communications  Wireless Networks
 Wireless  Adaptive Antennas
Communication  Intelligent
 Fiber Optics Transportation Systems
 Satellites  Digital Radio Design
 Computer Networks
 Error Control Coding
Computer Engineering
Academics Research
 Combine:  High-Performance
Computing
 Hardware Skills of an
Electrical Engineer  Computer Networks
 Software Skills of a  Computer Security
Computer Scientist  Parallel Processing
 Microprocessor Design  Applications of
Programmable Logic
 Programmable Logic  Voice Recognition
 Computer Architecture  Software Design
 Computer Operating
Systems