Sei sulla pagina 1di 30

AIR-CONDITIONING SYSTEM

DCC6242 – BASIC BUILDING SERVICES


Lesson learning outcomes
 Learn the basic principles of air conditioning system
 Know the principles of cooling substance
 Understand the process of air conditioning system
 Understand the effect of air conditioning systems to the
environment
DEFINITION
Air conditioning is a process of controlling and treating of
air for closed rooms in order to obtain comfort.
Mechanical treatment is done to the temperature,
humidity, air renewal, cleanliness and air distribution to
obtain the need and function of a room.
DEFINISI
 Penyamanan udara ialah proses pengawalan dan
perawatan bagi semua kandungan udara untuk ruang @
tempat-tempat tertutup. Perawatan mekanikal dilakukan
terhadap suhu, kelembapan, pembaharuan udara,
kebersihan dan pengagihan udara tersebut bagi mencapai
keperluan dan fungsi tertentu sesuatu ruang.
Air-cond system should have:
 Control on temperature through heating / cooling
 Control on humidity through humidification/
dehumidification
 Control on cleanliness through filtering, cleaning to
remove dirt
 Air distribution : ventilation & flow methods
WHY air-cond.?
 Comfort
 Workers performance and products output
 Health
 Equipments
Comfort parameters:

 Temperature : 22°C to 27°C.


 Relative humidity : 40% to 60%.
 Air movement : not exceeding 12 meter/min
 Sufficient clean air to prevent body smell.
 Avoid noise from equipment and air duct.
Design factors
 Building orientation / orientasi bangunan
 Building’s cover/ Penutupan bangunan
 Penyusupan
 Surroundings and climate / Keadaan persekitaran dan
iklim
 Activities and equipments in rooms/ Aktiviti dan alatan
dalam ruang
factors of choosing type of air conditioning
system
 Had kos pembelian dan sistem penyenggaraan
 Kegunaan dan fungsi bangunan
 Kecekapan memberi perkhidmatan
 Fleksibiliti yang diperlukan
 Tatasusunan dan perancangan bangunan
 Ekonomi ruang
2 types of cycle in air cond.

Air cycle-
process of
distributing
treated air
into rooms Basic
refrigerant
system
Air cycle
Air cycle
 The cycle begins when the fan forces air into ductwork
leading to openings in the room. These openings are
called outlets or terminals. The air is directed from the
ductwork through these outlets and into the room where
the air either heats or cools the room as needed. Dust
particles in the room enter the air stream and are carried
along with it.
 The air then flows from the room through a second
outlet or return outlet. Dust particles are removed from
the air by a filter installed in the return ductwork. After
the air is cleaned, it is either heated or cooled depending
on the requirements of the room. If cooling is required,
the air is passed over the surface of a cooling coil. If heat
is required, the air is passed through a combustion
chamber or over the surface of a heating coil. Finally, the
air is returned to the fan and the cycle is completed.
Basic refrigerant system
 Principles of Refrigeration
 Liquids absorb heat when changed from liquid to gas
 Gases give off heat when changed from gas to liquid.
 For an air conditioning system to operate with economy,
the refrigerant must be used repeatedly. For this reason,
all air conditioners use the same cycle of compression,
condensation, expansion, and evaporation in a closed
circuit. The same refrigerant is used to move the heat
from one area, to cool this area, and to expel this heat in
another area.
 The refrigerant comes into the compressor as a low-pressure
gas, it is compressed and then moves out of the compressor as
a high-pressure gas.
 The gas then flows to the condenser. Here the gas condenses
to a liquid, and gives off its heat to the outside air.
 The liquid then moves to the expansion valve under high
pressure. This valve restricts the flow of the fluid, and lowers
its pressure as it leaves the expansion valve.
 The low-pressure liquid then moves to the evaporator, where
heat from the inside air is absorbed and changes it from a
liquid to a gas.
 As a hot low-pressure gas, the refrigerant moves to the
compressor where the entire cycle is repeated.
• Creates the pressure • A heat exchanger where
differences in system the heat absorbed by
needed to make the refrigerant is
refrigerant flow and the transferred to the
refrigeration cycle work cooler outdoor air or
another cooler
substance

COMPRESSOR CONDENSOR

• Provides a pressure • Heat exchanger where


drop that lowers the the heat from the area
boiling point of the or item being cooled is
refrigerant just before it transferred to the
enters the evaporator. refrigerant

EXPANSION
VALVE EVAPORATOR
Window unit

Unit system Packaged unit

Split unit

Central
handling plant
Air conditioning system
Plant system
system
Chilled water
system

Inductance
system

Centralised
control system Fan coil unit

v.a.v system
Window Unit
Window Unit
 These types of AC are designed to be fitted in window
sills. A single unit of Window Air Conditioner houses all
the necessary components, namely the compressor,
condenser, expansion valve or coil, evaporator and
cooling coil enclosed in a single box. Since a window AC
is a single unit, it takes less effort to install as well as for
maintenance.
 Advantages
 Single unit air conditioner
 Less effort needed for installation
 Costs lesser in comparison to other varieties
Split unit
Split unit
 Split air conditioners have two main parts, the outdoor
unit is the section which generates the cold refrigerant
gas and the indoor unit uses this cold refrigerant to cool
the air in a space.
 The outdoor unit uses a compressor and air cooled
condenser to provide cold refrigerant to a cooling coil in
the indoor unit.
 A fan then blows air across the cooling coil and into the
room.
 The indoor unit can either be ceiling mounted (cassette
unit), floor mounted or duct type.
 Advantages
 Internal unit takes up less space for installation
 Usually more silent than window ACs
 Minimally affect your home decor
 Can be installed in room with no windows
Package unit
Package unit
 The packaged central air conditioner is usually located
outdoors and consists of one cabinet that contains the
evaporator, condenser, and compressor.
 The cabinet is usually placed on a roof or on a concrete
slab next to the house's foundation.
 The packaged air conditioner is connected to the indoor
air supply and return ducts through the home's exterior
wall or roof.
Plant system
 The bulk of the equipment are located in the plant room
and air air handling unit room (AHU Room). There are
basically two types of systems that are being implemented
in most buildings. They are the Direct or
the Indirect type.
 The Direct type is also known as the DX system where
the air in the space is directly cooled by the evaporator
coil. The air from the space to be cooled is circulated
over the cooling coil of a refrigeration plant.
 The Indirect type uses chilled water or brine from the
refrigeration plant that is circulated through the cooling
coil which is located in the air-handling unit (AHU) to
cool and dehumidify the room air. This system is also
Differentiate types of air conditioning
system
Unit type Loji type
Types Types
Beban pendinginan 105.5 kw Lebih
Keupayaan pengelolaan udara 2832 Lebih
liter/saat dan ke bawa
Pengawalan suhu secara individu Berpusat atau dari bilik AHU
Pengendalian untuk ruang yang kecil Melibatkan ruang yang besar
Tidak menggunakan salur udara Perlu disepadukan dengan sistem sesalur
Effects of air-conditioning sytem to
environment