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Rocks and Minerals

Is steel mineral?
• No, because mineral can’t be man-made.
Steel is an alloy that made up mostly of Fe
with little bits of carbon in it.
Are shells minerals?
• No.
• Minerals are inorganic ( not living) and not
made by living things. Shells are not type
of mineral but they are made of solid
materials ( biominerals) similar to some
inorganic minerals.
Is glacier a mineral?
• Yes!
• Inorganic
• Solid
• Crystalline structure
• As long as naturally occurring
Is water mineral?
• No!
• Inorganic
• Naturally occuring
• But it is liquid and has no crystalline
structure
How are minerals formed?
• Many minerals crystallize from liquids,
principally from magma/lava (molten
rock), hot waters (e.g. geysers), or oceans.
• Others are formed when rocks are re-
buried below the Earth’s surface and
exposed to high pressure and temperature.
• The minerals become unstable and they
exchange chemical elements.This form
new minerals.
Grains of sand…
Many ongoing processes constantly
change the surface of the globe.
Our Earth is cyclic and restless.
In other words,
---everything on the earth
operates in cycles
---the surface of the earth
is constantly changing
Geology
• The science that
considers the
history of the
earth, as
recorded in rocks
Earth Structure
What are the three types of
rocks?
Rocks
• Igneous = formed by the cooling and
crystallization of magma (melted rock)
• Sedimentary = formed from accumulation
of weathered material (sediments)
• Metamorphic = formed from preexisting
rocks that have been transformed (changed)
Igneous, Sedimentary, Metamorphic

 Each type of rock records a different


complex past.
 Each type of rock can be changed from
one form to another and back again.
 geologists call these transformations the
“rock cycle”
Rock Cycle
Igneous Rock
 formed by cooling & crystallization
of magma.
 means “formed by fire”
 make up about 95% of the earth’s crust
 basalt (ocean floor) and granite (continents)
are common examples
Intrusive ( Plutonic)

– Form within the Earth


– Slow cooling
– Interlocking large crystals
– Example = granite
Igneous Rock
• Extrusive • Intrusive
• Form at earth surface • Form inside crust
Example-basalt Example-granite
Fine texture Course texture
Small minerals Large minerals
Fast cooling Slow cooling
Extrusive ( volcanic)

– Form on the surface of the Earth as a result of


volcanic eruption
– Rapid cooling
– Glassy and/or fine-grained texture
– Example = basalt
Intrusive and extrusive
counterparts
• Granite and
Rhyolite
• Diorite and
Andesite
• Gabbro and
Basalt
Igneous Rocks
Texture Silica
Content
High Medium Low
Course Granite Diorite Gabbro
Fine Rhyolite Andesite Basalt
Glassy Obsidian Basalt (gl)
Vesicular Pumice Scoria
Sedimentary Rock
 formed from the weathered material
carried by water, wind, or ice
 most common rocks in the upper crust
 cover over 2/3 of the earth’s surface
 sandstone, shale, and limestone
Origin of sediments

– Produced by weathering and erosion or by


precipitation from solution
– Weathering = chemical and mechanical
breakdown of rocks
– Erosion = processes that get the weathered
material moving
Sediment Types
Sedimentary Rock
• Clastic • Chemical
• Broken pieces of rock • Dissolved materials
precipitate from
• Particle deposition at solution
river bottom, beach,
• Inorganic or organic
or desert
• Ex-calcite mineral or
• Cementation calcium carbonate
• Ex-quartz mineral from shells forms
forms sandstone limestone
Sedimentary Rocks
Sediment Sedimentary Rock
Gravel and cobbles Conglomerate
Sand Sandstone
Silt and clay Shale
Calcium carbonate Limestone
Calcium sulfate Gypsum
Sodium chloride Halite
Clastic

Chemical and
biochemical
sediments
Lithification
– The process that converts sediments
into solid rock
– Compaction
– Cementation
Metamorphic Rock
• ---formed from preexisting rocks (igneous,
sedimentary, or other metamorphic)
• ----metamorphic means “changing in form”
• ----marble and slate are common examples
Metamorphic Rock
• Foliated • Nonfoliated
• Elongated minerals • Smooth, solid
align in parallel layers homogenous blend of
• H & P separates minerals in rock
minerals into parallel • H & P recrystallizes
layers rock
• Igneous granite to • Igneous limestone to
metamorphic gneiss metamorphic marble.
conglomerate

metaconglomerate
granite

gneiss
Metamorphic Rock
Original Rock Metamorphic Rock

Sandstone Quartzite

Limestone Marble

Shale Slate, Schist

Granite Gneiss
Metamorphic Rock Origin

• Slate from shale


• Quartzite from sandstone
• Marble from limestone