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Module 1

Introduction to Databases
Module 1 Overview

• Introduction to Relational Databases


• Other Types of Databases and Storage
• Data Analysis
• Database Languages in SQL Server
Lesson 1: Introduction to Relational Databases

• What Is a Database?
• Relational Database Fundamentals
• Tables in Relational Databases
• Introduction to Normalization
What Is a Database?

• A database is an organized store of data for:


• Faster retrieval of data

• Databases usually store data in a way that


minimizes redundancy to achieve:
• More efficient data storage
• Reduced data inconsistency

• Query languages provide a standardized way to


access the data in a database
• A database management system (DBMS) is the
software with which you can create and manage
databases
Relational Database Fundamentals
Tables in Relational Databases
Introduction to Normalization
Lesson 2: Other Types of Databases and Storage

• Data Warehouses
• OLAP- Online Analytical Processing Databases
• Cube or Data Model

• Hierarchical Databases
• Column-Oriented Databases
• NoSQL Databases
• Hadoop
• SQL Graph
Data Warehouses
Online Analytical Processing (OLAP) Databases
Hierarchical Databases
Column-Oriented Databases
NoSQL Databases

• NoSQL databases:
• Do not use the relational data model
• Offer better performance than relational databases for very
large volumes of complex data
• Some NoSQL databases lack key relational features

• Increasing prevalence of NoSQL databases:


• The need to store and manage big data
• Greater availability of scale-out technologies

• Types of NoSQL databases include:


• Document-oriented databases
• Object-oriented databases
Hadoop

• Hadoop is a big data technology that offers


massive processing power for processing very
large data loads
• SQL Server 2016 includes PolyBase, which
integrates SQL Server with Hadoop environments
SQL Graph

• SQL Graph is new in SQL Server 2017


• What is SQL Graph?
• Nodes and edges that model entities and relationships
• Stored as tables and created with Transact-SQL
• CREATE TABLE has new AS EDGE and AS NODE keywords
• When to Use SQL Graph
• To hold hierarchical data
• Model many-to-many relationships
• Easier analysis of relationships and connections
• Querying SQL Graph
• MATCH clause
Lesson 3: Data Analysis

• Data and Information


• Information and Intelligence
• Preparing Data for Analysis
Data and Information
Information and Intelligence
Preparing Data for Analysis
Lesson 4: Database Languages in SQL Server

• Structured Query Language


• Transact-SQL Queries
• Other Query Languages in SQL Server
Structured Query Language

• SQL is a standard language for use with relational


databases
• SQL standards are maintained by ANSI and ISO
• Proprietary RDBMS systems have their own
extensions of SQL standards, such as Transact-SQL
• Subsets of SQL include:
• Data Definition Language (DDL)
• CREATE, ALTER, DROP

• Data Manipulation Language (DML)


• INSERT, UPDATE, DELETE, SELECT

• Data Control Language (DCL)


• GRANT, REVOKE, DENY
Transact-SQL Queries
Other Query Languages in SQL Server

Other languages that SQL Server supports include:


• Xquery- (XML-based sources)
• Multi-Dimensional eXpression Language – MDX
(Cube-based sources)
• Data Analysis eXpression Language – DAX
(Tabular data-model formulas)
• Data Mining eXpression Language – DMX
(Data mining queries)
• R- a query language for big data processes
Lab 1: Exploring and Querying SQL Server Databases

• Exercise 1: Exploring an OLTP Schema and a Data


Warehouse Schema
• Exercise 2: Querying a Database by Using
Transact-SQL

Logon Information
Ensure that the 10985C-MIA-DC and 10985C-MIA-SQL
virtual machines are both running, and then log on to
10985C-MIA-SQL as ADVENTUREWORKS\Student with
the password Pa55w.rd.

Estimated Time: 45 minutes