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CHAPTER 8

Motivation and
Empowerment

©2018 Cengage Learning®. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
Learning Objectives (slide 1 of 3)
• Recognize and apply the difference between
intrinsic and extrinsic rewards
• Appropriately tap into the motives that induce
people to take action to accomplish important
goals
• Motivate others by meeting their higher-level
needs

©2018 Cengage Learning®. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
Learning Objectives (slide 2 of 3)
• Apply needs-based theories of motivation and
understand how the concept of equity applies to
motivation
• Describe the psychological and structural
elements of empowerment and how
empowerment contributes to motivation
• Apply the job characteristics model to enrich
jobs

©2018 Cengage Learning®. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
Learning Objectives (slide 3 of 3)
• Identify factors that play a role in employee
engagement and use engagement to meet
higher-level needs
• Build a thriving workforce by giving people a
sense of making progress toward meaningful
goals

©2018 Cengage Learning®. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
Motivation (slide 1 of 2)

The forces either internal or


external to a person that
arouse enthusiasm and
persistence to pursue a
certain course of action

©2018 Cengage Learning®. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
Motivation (slide 2 of 2)
• Employee motivation affects productivity
• Part of a leader’s job is to channel followers’
motivation toward the accomplishment of the
organization’s vision and goals
• Leaders use motivation theory to:
– Satisfy followers’ needs
– Encourage high work performance

©2018 Cengage Learning®. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
Exhibit 8.1 – A Simple Model of
Motivation

©2018 Cengage Learning®. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
Intrinsic and Extrinsic Rewards
Intrinsic rewards
• Internal satisfactions a person receives in the
process of performing a particular action

Extrinsic rewards
• Rewards given by another person, typically a
supervisor, such as pay increases and
promotions

©2018 Cengage Learning®. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
Exhibit 8.2 – Needs of People and
Motivation Methods

Source: Adapted from William D. Hitt, The Leader-Manager: Guidelines for Action (Columbus, OH: Battelle Press, 1988), p. 153.

©2018 Cengage Learning®. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
Exhibit 8.3 – Four Categories of
Motives

Source: Based on Bruce H. Jackson, ‘‘Influence Behavior: Become a Master Motivator,’’ Leadership Excellence (April 2010), p. 14.

©2018 Cengage Learning®. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
Needs-Based Theories of Motivation

Hierarchy of needs theory

Two-factor theory

Acquired needs theory

©2018 Cengage Learning®. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
Hierarchy of Needs Theory

Maslow’s theory proposes that


humans are motivated by
multiple needs and those needs
exist in a hierarchical order

©2018 Cengage Learning®. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
Exhibit 8.4 – Maslow’s Hierarchy of
Needs

©2018 Cengage Learning®. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
Two-Factor Theory
Hygiene factors
• First dimension of Herzberg’s two-factor theory;
involves working conditions, pay, company
policies, and interpersonal relationships

Motivators
• Second dimension of Herzberg’s two-factor
theory; involves job satisfaction and meeting
higher-level needs such as achievement,
recognition, and opportunity for growth

©2018 Cengage Learning®. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
Exhibit 8.5 – Herzberg’s
Two-Factor Theory

©2018 Cengage Learning®. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
Acquired Needs Theory

McClelland’s theory that


proposes that certain types of
needs (achievement, affiliation,
power) are acquired during an
individual’s lifetime

©2018 Cengage Learning®. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
Acquired Needs
Need for achievement
• Desire to accomplish something difficult, attain a
high standard of success, master complex tasks,
and surpass others

Need for affiliation


• Desire to form close personal relationships, avoid
conflict, and establish warm friendships

Need for power


• Desire to influence or control others, be responsible
for others, and have authority over others
©2018 Cengage Learning®. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
Other Motivation Theories

Reinforcement theory

Expectancy theory

Equity theory

©2018 Cengage Learning®. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
Reinforcement Theory

A motivational theory that


looks at the relationship
between behavior and its
consequences by changing
or modifying followers’ on-
the-job behavior through the
appropriate use of immediate
rewards or punishments

©2018 Cengage Learning®. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
Reinforcement Perspective on
Motivation (slide 1 of 2)
Behavior modification
• Set of techniques by which reinforcement theory is used to
modify behavior
Law of effect
• States that positively reinforced behavior tends to be
repeated, and behavior that is not reinforced tends not to be
repeated

Reinforcement
• Anything that causes a certain behavior to be repeated or
inhibited
Positive reinforcement
• Administration of a pleasant and rewarding consequence
following a behavior
©2018 Cengage Learning®. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
Reinforcement Perspective on
Motivation (slide 2 of 2)
Negative reinforcement
• Withdrawal of an unpleasant consequence once a behavior
is improved

Punishment
• Imposition of unpleasant outcomes on an employee
following undesirable behavior

Extinction
• Withdrawal of a positive reward, meaning that behavior is
no longer reinforced and hence is less likely to occur in the
future

©2018 Cengage Learning®. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
Exhibit 8.6 – Shaping Behavior with
Reinforcement

Source: Based on Richard L. Daft and Richard M. Steers, Organizations: A Micro/Macro Approach (Glenview, IL: Scott, Foresman, 1986) p. 109.

©2018 Cengage Learning®. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
Expectancy Theory

A theory that suggests that


motivation depends on
individuals’ mental
expectations about their ability
to perform tasks and receive
desired rewards

©2018 Cengage Learning®. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
Exhibit 8.7 – Key Elements of
Expectancy Theory

©2018 Cengage Learning®. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
Equity Theory

A theory that proposes that


people are motivated to seek
social equity in the rewards
they receive for performance

©2018 Cengage Learning®. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
Empowerment

Power sharing; the


delegation of power or
authority to subordinates in
the organization

©2018 Cengage Learning®. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
Psychological Model of
Empowerment
• Before empowering employees:
– Employees receive information about company
performance
– Employees receive knowledge and skills to
contribute to company goals
– Employees have the power to make substantive
decisions
– Employees understand the meaning and impact
of their jobs
– Employees are rewarded based on company
performance
©2018 Cengage Learning®. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
Job Design for Empowerment
Job design
• Structuring jobs in a way to meet higher-level needs and
increase motivation toward the accomplishment of goals

Job characteristics model


• Model of job design that considers the core job dimensions
of skill variety, task identity, task significance, autonomy,
and feedback to enrich jobs and increase their motivational
potential

Job enrichment
• Motivational approach that incorporates high-level
motivators into the work, including job responsibility,
recognition and opportunities for growth, learning, and
achievement
©2018 Cengage Learning®. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
Exhibit 8.8 – The Job Characteristics
Model

Source: Adapted from J. Richard Hackman and G. R. Oldham, ‘‘Motivation through the Design of Work: Test of a Theory,’’ Organizational Behavior
and Human Performance 16 (1976), p. 256.

©2018 Cengage Learning®. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
Ways to Increase Job Enrichment
• Increase skill variety
• Structure jobs so that an employee can perform
a complete task from beginning to end
• Incorporate task significance into the job
• Give people autonomy for choosing how and
when to perform specific tasks
• To the extent possible, design jobs to provide
feedback and let employees see the outcomes
of their efforts
©2018 Cengage Learning®. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
Empowerment Applications
• Dimensions used to classify empowerment
methods
– Extent to which employees are involved in
defining desired outcomes
– Extent to which they participate in determining
how to achieve those outcomes

©2018 Cengage Learning®. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
Exhibit 8.9 – Degrees of
Empowerment

©2018 Cengage Learning®. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
Engagement

When people enjoy their jobs


and are satisfied with their
work conditions, contribute
enthusiastically to meeting
team and organizational
goals, and feel a sense of
belonging and commitment to
the organization
©2018 Cengage Learning®. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.
New Ideas for Motivation
Making progress principle
• Idea that the single most important factor that can
boost motivation, positive emotions, and
perceptions during a workday is making progress
toward meaningful goals

Thriving workforce
• Workforce in which people are not just satisfied
and productive, but also engaged in creating a
better future for themselves and the organization;
incorporates vitality and learning

©2018 Cengage Learning®. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.