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Shahrukh Shahzad
o B1- Thiamine

o B2- Riboflavin

o B3- Niacin

o B5- Pantothenic Acid

o B6- Pyridoxine Biotin

o B12- Cyanocobalamin
Water soluble vitamins

o Function as Precursor

o for co-enzymes & anti oxidants

o Excess amounts non toxic

o These vitamins are not stored

except B12

o Body requires them frequently

Thiamine – B1
Other Names Of Thiamine

o Anuerine
o Thiamin
o Thio-vitamine
o Anti beriberi factor
o Sulphur containing
Structure Of Thiamine

Adolf Otto Windaus

NP 1928
Thiamine Pyrophosphate (TPP)

o Co-en z yme

o Essential for transmission of

nerve impulse

o TPP is required for synthesis of

o Acetylcholine.
Oxidative decarboxylation

TPP Acetyl -

Food Sources Of Thiamine

o Rich Sources Outer coatings of

food grains like rice, wheat and

o Good sources Whole cereals,

pulses, oilseeds and nuts.

o Fair sources Meat, liver and egg

and fish.
o Children - 0.7-1.2 mg/day
o Pregnancy & lactation - 2 mg/day


o increased carbohydrate intake

o Pregnancy
o Lactation
o Smoking
o Alcoholism
o Prolonged antibiotic intake
o Serious or prolonged illness

o Thiaminase

o It is present in raw fish &

Benefits Of Thiamine
(Vitamin B1)
o Helps prevent complications in the
nervous system, brain, muscles, heart,
stomach, and intestines. It is also
involved in the flow of electrolytes into
and out of muscle and nerve cells.
o prevent diseases such as beriberi, which
involves disorders of the heart, nerves,
and digestive system.
Side Effects Of Thiamine
(Vitamin B1)
o Allergic Reaction Signs: Difficult
breathing; swelling of your face, lips,
tongue, or throat

o Blue colored lips;

o Chest pain, feeling short of breath;
o Black, bloody, or tarry stools; or
o Coughing up blood or vomit that looks
Failure of ↓ATP Impaired
carbohydrate cellular
metabolism functions
Causes Of Thiamine Deficiency

o Food containing a high level of

thiaminase, including milled rice,
raw freshwater fish, raw
shellfish, and ferns.
Riboflavin - B2
Otto Heinrich Warburg

o Isolated the "yellow

enzyme” of cellular
Axel Theorell

Isolated riboflavin
Riboflavin Vitamin B2

oWater-soluble vitamin
oAll vitamins are either water soluble
or fat soluble
oWater-soluble vitamins are carried
through the bloodstream
oAbsorbed in the small intestine.
o Absorbed in small
o distributed to all tissues
by circulation
Riboflavin – Active Forms

Food Sources of Riboflavin
Vitamin- B2
o Occurs
naturally in
foods, added
to others,
and it can be
taken as
1.3 –
Benefits (Role) Of Riboflavin
Vitamin- B2
Vitamin b2 helps break down proteins, fats, and
o Maintain body's energy supply
o Helps convert carbohydrates into ATP
o Maintaining a healthy liver
o Hormone production by the adrenal glands
o Keeping the eyes, nerves, muscles and skin healthy
o Preventing the development of cataracts
o Fetal development
Side Effects Of Riboflavin
Vitamin- B2

o Normally, vitamin B2 is considered safe. An

overdose is unlikely, as the body can absorb up
to around 27 milligrams of riboflavin, and it
expels any additional amounts in the urine.
o Supplements can interact with other
medications, and B2 supplements may impact the
effectiveness of some drugs, such as
anticholinergic medications and tetracycline.
Side Effects Of Riboflavin
Vitamin- B2
Drugs that may interfere with riboflavin
levels in the body include:

o Tricyclic antidepressants, such as

imipramine, or Tofranil
o Antipsychotic drugs, such as
chlorpromazine, or Thorazine
o Methotrexate, used for cancer
o Thiazide diuretics, or water pills
Deficiency Of Riboflavin
Vitamin- B2

• B2 deficiency occurs when diet is poor,

because the human body excretes the
vitamin continuously, so it is not stored
• A person who has a B2 deficiency lacks
other vitamins too.
Types Of Riboflavin Deficiency
oPrimary riboflavin deficiency
happens when the person's diet is poor in
vitamin B2
oSecondary riboflavin deficiency
happens because the intestine cannot absorb
the vitamin properly, or the body cannot use it, or
because it is being excreted too rapidly
oRiboflavin deficiency is also known as