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URBAN FOREST

SUBJECT - LANDSCAPE

 GROUP MEMBER • HARDIK PRAJAPATI


• HARESH PRAJAPATI
• HIRAL SATHWARA
• KASHITA KHALATE
• PRIYA PARMAR
• BHUMIKA ZINZUVADIYA
 WHAT IS THE URBAN FOREST ?
 An urban forest is a forest or a collection of  Images
trees that grow within a city, town or
a suburb. In a wider sense it may include any
kind of woody plant vegetation growing in and
around human settlements. In a narrower
sense (also called forest park) it describes
areas whose ecosystems are inherited from
wilderness leftovers or remnants. Care and
management of urban forests is called urban
forestry. Urban forests may be publicly-
owned municipal forests, but the latter may
also be located outside of the town or city to
which they belong.

collection of trees around the city


In different way
 WHAT IS THE URBAN FOREST ?
 Urban forests play an important role in ecology of  Images
human habitats in many ways: they filter air, water,
sunlight, provide shelter to animals and
recreational area for people. They moderate local
climate, slowing wind and storm water, and
shading homes and businesses to conserve
energy. They are critical in cooling the urban heat
island effect, thus potentially reducing the number
of unhealthful ozone days that plague major cities
in peak summer months.

 In many countries there is a growing


understanding of the importance of the natural
ecology in urban forests. There are numerous
projects underway aimed at restoration and
preservation of ecosystems, ranging from simple
elimination of leaf-raking and elimination of
invasive plants to full-blown reintroduction of
original species and riparian ecosystems.
 TYPE OF URBAN FOREST

1. large forest and has high naturalness


 There are increasing needs about creation and sustainable Exa. Mt. Bukhan , South Korea
management of urban forest for environmental conservation
and recreational service.

 classify the urban forest types by considering its geographical


feature, biological and sociological characteristics in order to
local governments about effective creation or management of
urban forest.

 Types of urban forest

1. large forest and has high naturalness

2. fragmented to large forests by developmental projects

3. flat and has high accessibility

4. located near residential area


1. Mt. Gwanak , South Korea. 2. fragmented to large forests

Manaus, Brazil

Aerial view of the Amazon rainforest, near Manaus, the capital of


the Brazilian state of Amazonas.
3. flat and has high accessibility 4. located near residential area

forest behind Seonjeongneung , South Korea. Mt. Ansan,

Mt. Inwang and Mt. Bonghwa


 VARIOUS ASPECTS OF URBAN FOREST MANAGEMENT.
 WHY WE NEED URBAN FOREST
MANAGEMENT
• Developing management goals for the community urban
forests.

-Tree planting and increased forestry canopy cover.

-Improved tree planting/protection legislation and policies.

-Expanded education and public relations.

-Improved organizational structure and funding.

-Improved urban forest maintenance.

• Tree preservation orders (TPOs) are established under


municipal ordinances and can be for

-single tree

-group of trees

-all trees within a defined area

-woodland areas
 VARIOUS ASPECTS OF URBAN FOREST MANAGEMENT.
 TREE SELECTION
Municipalities should strive for diversity of tree species throughout
their city-An accepted rule recommends no more than 30 % from a
single plant family, less than 20 % of the trees should be from the
same genus and no more than, 10 %from the same species.

 INSECTS AND DISEASES


Insects and diseases can devastating impact on community forest.
• A Urban Forest Master Plan can help formulate policies and
procedures for managing these threats
– identifying
– Monitoring
– Determining the economic threshold
– Selecting the correct treatment
– Proper timing of management strategies
– Record keeping and evaluation
 VARIOUS ASPECTS OF URBAN FOREST MANAGEMENT.
 PROTECTION
• Urban Forestry Master Plan can set the policies and strategies
needed to enhance and protect the urban forests…
- Maintenance
- Removal and replacement
- Storm-response/emergency plan
- Preservation
- Tree risk management plan

 REPLACEMENT COSTS
• This method is used when the plants are of a size that can be
replaced.
– The Replacement Cost Method can be used to appraise the
value of transplantable landscape trees, shrubs, and vines.
– The Appraised Valueof a landscape plant is based on the cost
of planting a plant of the same or comparablespecies, conditions,
and size in the same place.If the appraised plant is to be replaced,
the costsof plant removal and cleanup are addedto obtain the
Appraised Value.
 VARIOUS ASPECTS OF URBAN FOREST MANAGEMENT.
 TREE INVENTORIES
• Partial
– Downtown trees

– Park trees

– Historic or other significant tree

collection

• Complete
– 100% inventory of all public trees

and potential planting sites

– GIS/GPS option
 VARIOUS ASPECTS OF URBAN FOREST MANAGEMENT.
 COST IMPLEMENTATION

- Tree purchasing and planting

- Pruning

- Irrigation

- Removal and disposal

- Pest, disease prevention and control

- Sidewalk repair

- Leaf litter clean-up

- Legal liability and other administrative aspects


 VARIOUS ASPECTS OF URBAN FOREST MANAGEMENT.
 Leadership in energy andenvironmental
design (LEEDS)
• Established a set of standards for building and

development certification. Measurements based on :

– Sustainable sites

– Water efficiencies

– Energy and atmosphere

– Materials and resources

– Indoor environmental qualities

– Location and linkages

– Awareness and education

– Innovation in design

– Regional priority
 VARIOUS ASPECTS OF URBAN FOREST MANAGEMENT.
 TRUNK FORMULA METHOD

• Appraised Value = Basic Value x Condition x Location

Basic Value = Replacement Cost + (Basic Price x [TA(A) -

TA(R)] x Species)

• Condition = A rating of the tree's structure and health and based on 100 percent

• Location = the average for the tree's Site, Contribution and Placement and based on 100 percent

• Replacement Cost = the cost to purchase and install the largest locally available and transportable tree in the area.

• Basic Price = the cost per square inch of trunk area of a replacement tree measured at the height prescribed.

• TA(A) = Trunk Area at 4.5 feet above the ground of the appraised tree

• TA(R) = Trunk Area at 6 inches or 12 inches above the ground of the replacement tree

• Species = the rating for a particular species and based on 100 percent
 BENEFITS AND USES OF URBAN FORESTS AND TREES
 Introduction

 Trees and forests are, because of seasonal changes and their


size, shape, and color, the most prominent elements of urban
nature.

 Their benefits and uses range from intangible psychological and


aesthetic benefits to amelioration of urban climate and
mitigation of air pollution.

 Historically the main benefits of urban trees and forests relate


to health, aesthetic and recreational benefits in industrialized
cities.

 Moreover, green areas have provided people with subsistence


by providing food, fodder, fuel, wood and timber for
construction.

 Urban trees and woodland also contribute to an attractive green


townscape and thus communicate the image of a positive,
nature-oriented city. Indirectly, urban trees and forests can
promote tourism and enhance economic development.
 SOCIAL AND AESTHETIC BENEFITS OF URBAN FORESTS AND TREES
 Urban Woodland and Parks As a Recreational Resource

 Urban green-space recreation was a genuine phenomenon of


the mid-European bourgeoisie culture of the early 19th century.

 In earlier times, royal and aristocratic parks as well as urban


woodland were used as deer parks and hunting grounds to
display the splendour of court life.

 Only in the late 19th century and in the first half of the 20th
living conditions of the urban working class improved. A sports
and outdoor movement emerged that used urban green space
for recreation.

 Today, outdoor recreation is a type of activity many people


participate in, all across Europe. Participation in the most
common recreational activity, walking, stands at about 81% in
Finland (Pouta and Sievänen 2001) and 74% in The
Netherlands (Statistics Netherlands 1997).
 HEALTH BENEFITS OF URBAN FORESTS AND TREES
 Urban forests and trees contribute to a better quality of living
environment in cities, for example by improving air quality and
consequently the health of urban residents.

 The leaves of trees can take up many pollutants, e.g. ozone,


nitric acid vapor, nitrogen dioxide, ammonia, sulfur dioxide and
particles (aerosols and dust). Some of these pollutants can
cause serious health problems.

 An individual tree can provide a Sun Protection Factor (SPF) of


6 to 10, which means a level of exposure to ultraviolet radiation
of one sixth to one-tenth of full sun (NUFU 1999).

 An important positive effect of natural scenery on health is its


stress reducing effect.

 When they do go for a walk, a lack of nearby nature-based


opportunities tends to increase the number of people using a
car and subsequently leads to driving longer distances to visit
an attractive natural area .

 The key factor for active use is easy access to the areas,
preferably within walking distance from home.
 SOCIAL POTENTIAL AND TRENDS IN URBAN FOREST AND TREE
 Nowadays, different sections of urban society tend to share
more collective values regarding sound management of the
environment, including the importance of green space for the
well-being of growing urbanized societies.

 Conflicts and maintenance problems have developed during


recent decades due to a lack of information about the social
needs and expectations of various user groups.

 Today, event-culture is provided where attractive entertainment


is expected; and this applies to the media as well as to open-air
events in public green spaces.

 What common access meant to the middle and lower classes


of an emerging urban society in the 18th and 19th century has
become a rising public demand for fun-parks and entertainment
facilities at the beginning of the 21st century.

 Green space with related amenities and social and cultural


services to make it more attractive seems to be the demand of
today and probably even more for tomorrow.
 ARCHITECTURAL AND AESTHETIC BENEFITS
 The main purpose of trees and forests is to improve and to
restore constructed townscapes.

 Vegetation is used in defining open space and integrating the


buildings to the surrounding environment.

 Landscape variation is created through different colors,


textures, forms and densities of plants. Urban trees can direct
vision, break up large spaces, and define space.

 Aesthetic benefits relate to people experiencing different colors,


structure, forms and densities of woody vegetation . Much of
the aesthetic experience is subjective in nature and has impacts
on people’s mental and emotional state .

 The main part of aesthetic perception occurs through the sense


of sight and therefore, visualization of landscapes is a central
part of forest landscape perception and preference research.
 CLIMATIC, ENGINEERING AND ECOLOGICAL BENEFITS
 The urban forest can play a major role in improving urban
environmental conditions and safeguarding biodiversity.

 Environmental benefits do not relate solely to areas of


woodland, however; smaller groups, avenues and isolated trees
can equally improve environmental conditions in urban areas.
 AIR QUALITY
 Improving air quality has been an imperative of environmental
policies throughout the 20th century.

 While the concentration of air pollutants such as sulfur dioxide


has been successfully reduced in urban areas, other – mainly
car induced – pollutants such as nitrogen oxides, ozone and
volatile organic compounds are of increasing concern.

 This may be an issue in hot climates with intensive solar


radiation such as are experienced in Mediterranean cities.

 Also, the production of pollen from tree species such as birch


needs to be carefully considered when tree species are
selected for urban plantings, because of its allergenic effect.

 Single trees filter less dust than groups or rows of trees. Trees
capture air pollutants most efficiently when they are planted
close to the source of emissions.
 URBAN CLIMATES
 urban woodland and trees are consistently among the coolest
surfaces during hot summer days.

 On these hot summer days, air temperatures within large parks


can be 2–3°C lower than in the surrounding built-up areas.

 Air temperatures were significantly lower inside parks as


compared to the surrounding built areas, but temperatures were
also reduced in a transition zone outside the parks.

 However, even large parks lower the air temperatures in


adjacent built-up areas only to a distance of approximately 200–
400 m on the windward side on days with low wind speed when
the urban heat island effect is strongest.

 An ideal urban climate would offer a great range of different


microclimatic conditions within walking distance (=150 m; Mayer
1990), while avoiding climatic extremes.

 Open space types, and in particular those with a high


percentage cover of trees and water surfaces, were the coolest
areas in the city.
 URBAN CLIMATES
 An increase of tree canopy cover by 10% reduced surface
temperatures on average by 1.4°C during daytime on a hot
summer day.

 Low density residential areas were characterized by a cover of


trees and shrubs greater than 20%.

 Temperature reduction by trees is mainly caused by two factors:


direct shading and evapotranspirational cooling.

 On a hot summer day, for instance, a significant decrease of air


temperatures by more than 2°C could be observed during
daytime under trees on a car park as compared with sun
exposed sites in front of south facing walls (Brahe 1974).
 ECONOMIC BENEFITS OF URBAN FORESTS AND TREES
 In environmental economics a specific taxonomy of values
related to natural resources has been developed, although
definitions of these values seem to be somewhat unclear or
overlapping (Turner et al. 1994)
 INDIA’S FIRST URBAN FOREST TO BE CREATED IN KOLKATA
 Kolkata, Apr 2 (UNI) The West Bengal Government
agency, Housing Infrastructure Corporation (HIDCO),
has decided to create, in collaboration with a private
organization the country's first urban forest in Kolkata.
 The two organizations together have come up with the
campaign, ‘Heal the Earth, clean is our birthright’ to
popularize the effort.
 The urban forest, which will be spread over 4 acres of
land, will come up in Rajarhat, on the outskirts of the
city.
 At least 8,500 trees will be planted in this man-made
urban forest, which will produce 9,54,500 kg oxygen and
will absorb 5,27,000 kg carbon dioxide.
 Apart from maintaining the balance of environment,
there will be opportunities to buy trees.
 A small tree will cost Rs 500. One can even buy and
plant it in the urban forest.
 And in that case, the person’s name will be written on
that tree.
 INDIA’S FIRST URBAN FOREST TO BE CREATED IN KOLKATA
 The trees of this urban forest will absorb the carbon dioxide released by 275 people. As a result, at least 275 people will
receive air free of pollution. At least 8,500 trees will be planted in this man-made urban forest which will produce 9 lakhs 94
thousand 500 kg oxygen. The forest will also absorb 5 lakhs 27 thousand carbon dioxide which will help in reducing the
pollution in the city.

Mounthill the rain forest Rajarhat Kolkata


 URBAN FOREST OF AMERICAN CITIES
 The 10 best U.S. cities for urban forests. In alphabetical order, those
cities are Austin, Charlotte, Denver, Milwaukee, Minneapolis, New York,
Portland, Sacramento, Seattle and Washington, D.C.

 American Forests took on this project to help people (and city leaders)
better understand the critical value of urban forests in their cities to their
own lives, health, economies and well-being of their communities. And
to, therefore, invest in their urban forests. We see proactive individuals
as a key to maintaining urban forests. These people recognize that trees
around them are not just pretty shade providers, but are essential
elements of the natural fabric of the planet that we depend upon for
survival.

 The 10 best cities that we are recognizing today have made prolonged A view of central Minneapolis,
and profound investments in the health of their urban forest, and they’ve one of American Forests
benefited from active nonprofit and community participation in improving from across the Mississippi River at
St. Anthony Falls
and maintaining the city’s environmental resources. We extol these
cities’ efforts and dedication to urban forests to elevate the quality of life
for citizens and visitors alike and hope that other cities will be inspired by
their success.
 WASHINGTON, DC
 The District of Colombia has a long history of planning, enhancing and
maintaining its urban forest. Beginning in 1872, Governor Alexander
Shepherd ordered that 60,000 street trees be planted systematically to
“improve the quality of life in the Nation’s capital.” Because of his
actions, DC’s unofficial title became The City of Trees.

 An 1889 Harper’s Magazine article even proclaimed “The city of


Washington, the capital of the nation, exceeds in beauty any city of the
world…. But above all, its magnificent trees, make it without peer.”

 Since then, there has been a municipal agency responsible for tree
maintenance across the city. As of today, DC’s urban tree canopy hovers
near 35 percent, with nearly 2 million trees across the city. These trees
remove 540 tons of pollution per year, store 526,000 tons of carbon and
reduce the cost of energy usage in buildings by $2.6 million per year
resulting in an estimated $96,000 in avoided carbon emissions.
 TOKYO, JAPAN
 After the city was bombed during World War II, the number of trees
on Tokyo’s streets fell from 105,000 to 42,000—nearly 60 percent. In
the years following, the city lost another 35,000 due to disease and as
many were cut for firewood. Fire from the bombings destroyed much of
Tokyo’s forest cover in addition to decimating street trees, creating large
empty parcels of land as well.

 In 1946, the city created a plan to secure 10 percent of urban lands for
green areas and turn the barren parcels of land into urban parks.
Beginning in 1948, the city started restoring street trees as well when
new supplies of trees became available from nurseries. By 1980, the
number of street trees exceeded 235,000.

 As of 1990, 21,630 hectares of Tokyo’s green space is made up of


forest, meant to help conserve water one of the many benefits of tress
for the natural environment. Tokyo’s urban forests and trees have also
helped to supply the city with clean drinking water, a system of
wastewater disposal and storm water control.
 BELFAST, NORTHERN IRELAND
 Ireland is called the “Emerald Isle” for the large amount of green space
in its countryside, and it should come as no surprise that the same can
be said for its cities. Formed in 1992, the Forest of Belfast in Northern
Ireland includes all of Belfast City. Since the end of the Troubles in 1998,
nearly 200,000 trees have been planted across parks, playing fields,
streets, schools, factories, and along streets and river banks.

 The Forest of Belfast’s management has brought together partners from


local and central governments, environmental organizations and local
citizens who become volunteer Tree Wardens. With the help of the
Belfast City Council, support from European funding aimed at promoting
peace and reconciliation has allowed the partnership to help 300 groups
plant 90,000 trees in the last three years alone.

 Until recently, the perception of forests in much of the United Kingdom


has been that the “woods” are out in the countryside and are meant to
provide habitat for wildlife and act as a means of timber production—and
that cities have trees only for aesthetic beauty. There is now growing
recognition that trees can provide a whole range of benefits to cities,
thanks to the Forest of Belfast.
 REFERENCES
 https://www.americanforests.org/blog/the-best-urban-forests/

 https://www.wri.org/blog/2016/03/3-cities-taking-urban-forestry-next-level

 http://www.uniindia.com/india-s-first-urban-forest-to-be-created-in-kolkata/states/news/1186378.html

 http://www.rojdin.in/urban-forest-rajarhat/mounthill_the_rain_forest-rajarhat-kolkata-mounthill_realty/
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