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LTEFundamentalBasic

Scope and objectives


Objectives

• Explain the basics of the LTE radio interface


• Give an overview of the evolution of LTE

Scope

› Key LTE radio access features


› LTE in the future
› How to learn more
Overview
Key LTE radio access features
LTE radio access
OFDMA
Downlink: OFDM
Uplink: SC-FDMA SC-FDMA

Advanced antenna solutions


Diversity
Beam-forming TX TX

Multi-layer transmission (MIMO)

Spectrum flexibility
Flexible bandwidth
New and existing bands 1.4 MHz 20 MHz
Duplex flexibility: FDD and TDD
LTE Radio Access – Downlink
OFDM - Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing

• Large number of 15 kHz sub carriers


• Orthogonal: Other carriers zero at sampling point

User 1
User 2
User 3
f = 15 kHz

frequency
LTE Radio Access – Uplink
SC-FDMA – Single Carrier FDMA (DFTS-OFDM)

• Pre-coded OFDM
• Similar to OFDM
• 15 kHz tones BUT consecutive
• Same time-domain structure
User 1
• Low Peak-to-Average Power Ratio User 2
User 3

frequency
LTE DL Physical Resources
12 sub-carriers

One Scheduling Block


(2 Resource Blocks)
180 kHz and 1 ms

frequency
Scheduling
Round-robin Max C/I Proportional fair
• Time domain
• Round-robin
• Max C/I
• Proportional fair

Downlink
User 1
• Frequency domain User 2
User 3
• Consecutive
• Random
• Measurement based

frequency
Link adaptation
Layer 1 feature
Modulation scheme
• Time Domain (/user) QPSK 16QAM 64QAM

• Modulation scheme OFDM


symbol 2bits 4bits 6bits

• Channel coding
Channel coding

Data Control Data Control

• Frequency Domain
(/SB)
• Not that common
Time dispersion
One OFDM symbol

Direct path Tu

Reflected path

Measured by UE
Cyclic prefix insertion
One OFDM symbol

Direct path TCP Tu

Reflected path

Measured by UE

CP: 4.7μs => 1.4km


Multi-antenna Transmission
Examples

Radio channel

MISO (Multiple In Single Out)


eNodeB Beam forming Terminal
device
Transmit diversity

Radio channel

SIMO (Single In Multiple Out)


eNodeB Terminal
Receive diversity
device

Radio channel

MIMO (Multiple In Multiple Out)


eNodeB All above + Terminal
Spatial multiplexing (MIMO) device
Spectrum Flexibility
• New and existing bands
• FDD and TDD
• Flexible bandwidth

1.4MHz: 6 Scheduling Blocks

20 MHz: 100 Scheduling Blocks

LTE Channel bandwidths [MHz] 1.4 3 5 10 15 20


LTE DL peak rate
20 MHz and 4x4 MIMO AND 64 QAM

14 OFDM symbols per 1.0 ms subframe


64QAM = 6 bits per symbol
6 x 14 = 84 bits per 1.0 ms subframe

84bits/1.0ms = 84kbps per subcarrier


12 x 84kbps = 1.008Mbps per Scheduling Block
100 Scheduling Blocks in 20MHz
100 x 1.008Mbps = 100.8Mbps per antenna

4 x 4 MIMO: 403.2Mbps ! …and UL


no MIMO
BUT in reality approx. 300Mbps 75Mbps
LTE in the Future – Evolution!
• LTE Advanced study in 3GPP
• Start March 2008
• Expected Release 10 (2011)

• LTE Advanced => LTE 3GPP Rel 10

• Major enhancements
• Higher peak rates
• Relaying solutions
LTE 3GPP Rel 10
Higher peak rates
20 MHz

• Carrier aggregation
100 MHz total bandwidth

20 MHz 20 MHz

40 MHz total bandwidth

• Spectrum aggregation
8

• DL/UL Multi-Antenna transmission


Peak rates: 3Gbps/1.5Gbps !
1.2Gbps demonstrated at MWC2010
• 4 x 20 MHz
• DL 4x4
MIMO
• Commercial
hardware