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WATERPROOFING OF RESERVOIRS

RESERVOIR
A reservoir is an enlarged natural or artificial lake, pond or impoundment created using a dam or lock to store
water.
There are three basic types of
reservoir:
1. Costal Reservoir
2. Valley dam Reservoir
3. Service Reservoir
• Above Ground Reservoir
• Under Ground Reservoir (Covered Costal Reservoir Valley Dam Reservoir
and Open)
One of the most important issues
that builders confront with while
constructing concrete water
reservoirs is waterproofing.
The requirements, which must be
satisfied, differ according to
whether it is located above or
below ground. Above Ground Reservoir Under Ground Reservoir
SERVICE RESERVIOR

ABOVE GROUND RESERVOIR


UNDER GROUND RESERVOIR
In the case of an above the ground In the case of an underground reservoir, the waterproofing
reservoir, the waterproofing layer must: layer must:
• Be effective in terms of having no leaks. • Ensure that there is neither leakage of water from the
• Have sufficient elasticity to withstand reservoir nor any ingress of water from the surrounding
the expansion and contraction of the soil.
reservoir walls and floor, since these are • Be strongly bonded to the walls of the reservoir, in order
exposed to temperature changes of the to withstand the negative pressures that develop when
environment. the reservoir is emptied and the water table of the
surrounding soil is raised, even if this only occurs
temporarily.
WATERPROOFING METHODS FOR RESERVOIRS

GEOMEMBRANE WATERPROOFING ASPHALT WATERPROOFING PLASTIC SHEETING


GEOMEMBRANE WATERPROOFING
HDPE ( high density polyethylene) geomembranes are resistant to a
wide range of chemicals, including acids, salt solutions, alcohols,
oils and hydrocarbons.
In addition to their excellent chemical agents and UV radiation
resistance, they also provide high mechanical properties for
survival against the efforts of installation on site. This waterproofing
geomembrane has low permeability allowing them to act as a
barrier to the passage of fluids and gases.

GEOMEMBRANE has the following advantages:


• Excellent thermal and chemical resistance.
• Very good impact resistance.
• Acid resistant, resistant to water at 100º Celsius and most
common solvents.
• Flexibility, even at low temperatures.
• It is stiffer than low density polyethylene.
• Very lightweight.

Geo Synthetic Materials Available: Available Sizes: Rolls of 100 x 6 meters, 100 X 7 meters
•Geomembrane Thickness : 100 to 1500 Micron
•Geotextile Market Price: Rs 145 / Sq.meter, 500 Micron thick
•Geonet Rs 195 / Sq.meter, 1500 Micron Thick
•Geogrid
•Geosynthetic clayliner
•GeoComposites
LINER INSTALLATION
1. SITE SELECTION :
Whenever possible, site selection should avoid areas where flooding or ground
water pressure can occur. The lining "bottom" should be well above the water
table. If the site selected is in an area where organics are in the soil, or if gases
can be generated by chemical reaction, the design must allow for venting.

2. SURFACE TREATMENT :
Surfaces should be level and free of all sharp rocks (all rock and stone greater
than .05 diameter), objects, vegetation and stubble. (Soil sterilization may be
necessary to kill roots and certain types of grasses.) The subgrade surface should
provide a unyielding foundation for the geomembrane with no sharp or abrupt
changes or break in grade. Proper compaction assures stability and support of the
liner.

3. SLOPES :
Side slopes should be no steeper than 3:1 whenever feasible. Slopes are usually
hand-raked to achieve proper smoothness.

4. LINER AND MATERIALS :


Liner panels are fabricated into large sheets to minimize field seaming. These
large panels are first accordion folded, then rolled up on a core.

It is recommended that the liners panels' protective covering not be removed


until installation and that any uncovered panels be stored out of direct sunlight.

Panels are rolled on 6" cores and can be unloaded using a 10' section of schedule
80 pipe and handling straps.

We also offer 12 mil tarps to cover and protect delivered liner rolls.
5. ANCHOR TRENCHES :
To secure the edges of the lining in an earthen pit, an "anchor trench" is dug. Anchor
trenches are approx. two foot wide by two foot deep (2' x 2') and one foot back from
the crest of the berm (standard trench dimensions and depth vary according to project
design)

Dirt removed should be raked out flat on the far side of the trench, away from the pit,
to be used to backfill after the liner edges are laid out in the anchor trench, while
allowing the panels to be unrolled along the berm.
Liner Deployment
6. SITE STRUCTURES :
Structures, piping, concrete, drains, and any associated work should be completed
prior to lining installation.

7. LINER DEPLOYMENT :
The roll is raised by a loader, forklift, or other lifting equipment, and then unrolled in
one direction, and unfolded in the other direction

8. PANEL PLACEMENT
Panel Placement
9. FIELD SEAMING

10.LINER ATTACHMENTS TO STRUCTURE :

Field Seaming Liner Attachments


CONSTRUCTION OF UNDERGROUND RESERVOIR
1. Base Construction
For the base construction, remove projectiles such as stones, pieces
of wood and tree roots. Thoroughly compact the base to have the
base produce sufficient bearing force. If it is not practical to finish
the base flat and smooth, consider the use of a protection mat, sand
layer soil cement or a similar measure.
Where the base is soft and a significant ground subsidence is
expected, improve and stabilize it by using a method such as
replacement construction, sand drain construction and pre-load
construction, while considering the soil condition and the scale of
construction.
Thoroughly compact the areas such as the interface of cut and fill, a
portion with a large tree root removed and the peripheral of
concrete structures to prevent local settlement or depression.
2. Embankment
The following cases require special attention to ensure stability.
1. The fill-up is high.
2. The underground water level is high or spring water is present
much.
3. Soft, weak soil base.
4. Unstable soil bases in a region of possible landslides.
5. A fill-up on steep slope

3. Securing the crown of embankment


1. First, dig up a ditch at a horizontal distance of 500 mm from the
shoulder of the slope.
2. Place the portion of the sheet along the ditch in the shape of letter
"L".
3. Fill back the ditch in a manner not to contain water or air.
Compact the ditch thoroughly.
4. To finish the shoulder of the slope esthetically, form the portion
with concrete .
5. From the viewpoint of maintenance and control, provide measures
such as fences to ensure safety.

4. Interface with structures


1. Compact the areas around the structures carefully and thoroughly
since settlement of the back filled soil is likely to occur in these
areas.
2. In addition, chamfer the corner of the structure. Secure a bonding
width of 300 mm or more.
At Pipe Structure At Spillway

At Stairways At Retaining Wall


Measures against pressure from below
Underground water, spring water management (under drain)
Measures against underground water and spring water (Under drain)
To relieve the structure of the pressures from below caused by
underground water or spring water, be sure to install an under drain.
Wrap around the under drain with filtering material to avoid poor
water discharge due to pipe plugging or to prevent the piping from
settlement due to suction forces.

Air venting
To remove residual air from under the MIZUSHEET and air and
various gases generated in the base soil, install, as necessary, pieces
of air vent pipe under the slope. Install pieces of perforated pipe
under the slope from the bottom of the slope up to the crown of the
embankment at a distance of 20 m to 30 m from the adjacent pipe to
remove air from the shoulder of the slope. This is the standard
method. On some occasions, the bottom may be sloped at a gradient
of 1/500 to 1/200