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Social Process
Classification of Social Process
Social process is classified according to
certain Bases:

1. Based on formation
 Universal or basic processes
 Derived social Processes

2. Based on unity or opposition

 Conjuctive social processes
 Disjunctive social processes
According to Formation
1. Basic or universal processess-
refers to patterned and recurrent
responses observable in all human
There are three (3) universal social

 Cooperation
 Competition
 Conflict
It involves two or more persons
joining their intelligence, efforts,
talents and resources together to
attain a goal which can be shared.
It is a kind of conjoint action or a
alliance of person or groups
seeking some common goal or
Types of Cooperation
 Informal Cooperation. It is
characterized as spontaneous and involves
mutual give and take.
 Formal Cooperation. It is characterized
as a deliberate contractual nature and
prescribes the reciprocal rights and
obligations of members.
 Symbolic Cooperation. It is a situation
where two or more persons live together
harmoniously and are supportive and
interdependent resulting in mutual self-
Function of Cooperation
 It makes for social cohesion and
integration among the members of a
 It contributes to social stability and
 It fosters consensus and compromise in
various social issues.
It is a form of impersonalized
struggle or opposition to secure a
reward or goal which cannot be
Types of Competition
 Personal competition. It involves direct,
face-to-face contact between opposing
 Impersonal competition. It involves a
struggle between persons or groups not
directly aware of each other.
Function of Competition
 Competing individuals or groups try to
outdo each other and thereby innovate ways
to do so.
 Competition can be a driving force to
persons to develop their potentials to the
fullest and attain maximum efficiency and
 Competition of member of a society for
certain goals and the competition for scarce
resources lead variation or differentiation.
It is a form of highly personalized
and emotionalized struggle or
opposition between individuals or
group to attain scarce goals or
Functions of Conflict
 Conflicts may help establish unity and
cohesion within a group which has been
threatened by hostile and antagonistic
feelings among the members. Conflict with
the outside brings peace in the inside”.
 Internal conflict becomes a stabilizing and
integrating mechanism in certain instances.
 Conflicts provides an outlet for the
expression of suppresses emotions and
2. Derived social processess
Refers to secondary social processes that
arise out of the basic social processes.
Derived Social Processess
 Acculturation. It is a social process where
a group blends in and takes on some
characteristics of another culture. It is also
called cultural borrowing or cultural
 Assimilation. It involves some kind of
interpenetration or fusion of cultural
elements whereby persons or groups accept
the cultural traits, attitudes, beliefs and
sentiments of another through direct,
friendly and continuous contacts.
 Amalgation. It refers to some kind of
biological fusion through intermarriage of
persons coming from different groups.
 Differentiation. It refers to the
creation of interests resulting in
individuals or groups needing or wanting
different things or services rather than
same thing.
 Accomodation.