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CHAPTER 8

LOCATION AND
SIZING SUBSTATION

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CONTENT

• SUBSTATION LOCATION
• THE RATING OF A SUBSTATION
◦ Square Shape
◦ Hexagonally Shape
• SUBSTATION SERVICE AREA WITH N
PRIMARY FEEDRS
• VOLTAGE DROP CALCULATION

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SUBSTATION LOCATION
 SELECTING LOCATION FOR SUBSTATION
• As much as feasible close to the load center of its service area, proper
voltage regulation can be obtainable without taking extensive measures.
• Provides proper access for incoming subs-transmission lines and outgoing
primary feeder.
• Provide enough space for the future substation expansion.
• The selected substation should not be opposed by land use regulations,
local ordinances, and neighbors.
• The selected substation location should help to minimize the number of
customers affected by any service discontinuity.
• Other considerations, such as adaptability, emergency.

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SUBSTATION LOCATION
 Steps of the rule to a service area map
1. Draw a straight line between a proposed
substation site and each of its neighbors
2. Perpendicularly bisect each of those line
3. The set of all the perpendicular bisectors a
round a substation defines its service territory.
4. The target load for this substation will be the
sum of all loads in its service territory.

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SUBSTATION LOCATION

The perpendicular bisector rule for planning expansion

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THE RATING OF A
SUBSTATION
 The additional capacity requirements of a
system with increasing load density can be
met by:
◦ Either holding the service area of a given
substation constant and increasing its capacity
◦ Developing new substations and thereby holding
the rating of the given substations constant.

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THE RATING OF A SUBSTATION

Square Shaped Distribution Substation Service Area

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THE RATING OF A SUBSTATION
 Square Shaped
 Serves total load of each feeder is, S4 = A4 x D kVA
 Where,
◦ S4 is kVA load served by one of four feeder emanating from a feed
point.
◦ A4 is area served by one of four feeders emanating from a feed point,
mi2
◦ D : load density, kVA/mi2
 S4 = l42 x D kVA
◦ Since, A4 = l42
 TSn = n x D x An = total kVA supplied from feed point (size)
◦ N is no of feeder

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THE RATING OF A SUBSTATION

2 2
6 6

Hexagonally shaped service area supplied

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THE RATING OF A SUBSTATION

 Hexagonally shaped
l6
A6  xl6  0.578 xl62
3
◦ A6 = area served by one of six feeders emanating
from a feed point, mi2
◦ l6 2 = linear dimensions of a primary feeder service
area, mi
 Each feeder serves a total load, S6 = A6 x D
kVA or S6 = 0.578 x D x l62

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THE RATING OF A SUBSTATION
Substation Service Area served by n primary feeder

The total kVA load served by one of n feeders

In
Sn    n x tan 
2
dS Dxl
x 0
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VOLTAGE DROP CALCULATION
(2 / 3xln ) K (nxDxAn )
%VDn 
n
or

%VDn  (2 / 3xln xK )S n
 Where
◦ % VDn = percent voltage drop in primary feeder circuit
◦ 2/3 x ln = effective length of primary feeder
◦ K = % VD/(A.mi) of the feeder (the value of K is obtained from Figure)
◦ An = Area served by one feeder
◦ n = number of primary feeders

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VOLTAGE DROP CALCULATION
The K constant for conductors

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Example
To illustrate distribution substation sizing and spacing, assume a
squared-shaped distribution substation service area assume that the
substation is served by three phase four wire 2.4/4.16 kV grounded
wye primary feeders. The feeders mains are made of 2 AWG cooper
conductors with maximum current capacity is 230 A. Assume a
lagging load power factor of 0.9 and a 1000 kVA/km uniformly
distributed load density. Calculate the following :-