Sei sulla pagina 1di 14

CHAPTER 8

LOCATION AND
SIZING SUBSTATION

1
CONTENT

• SUBSTATION LOCATION
• THE RATING OF A SUBSTATION
◦ Square Shape
◦ Hexagonally Shape
• SUBSTATION SERVICE AREA WITH N
PRIMARY FEEDRS
• VOLTAGE DROP CALCULATION

2
SUBSTATION LOCATION
 SELECTING LOCATION FOR SUBSTATION
• As much as feasible close to the load center of its service area, proper
voltage regulation can be obtainable without taking extensive measures.
• Provides proper access for incoming subs-transmission lines and outgoing
primary feeder.
• Provide enough space for the future substation expansion.
• The selected substation should not be opposed by land use regulations,
local ordinances, and neighbors.
• The selected substation location should help to minimize the number of
customers affected by any service discontinuity.
• Other considerations, such as adaptability, emergency.

3
SUBSTATION LOCATION
 Steps of the rule to a service area map
1. Draw a straight line between a proposed
substation site and each of its neighbors
2. Perpendicularly bisect each of those line
3. The set of all the perpendicular bisectors a
round a substation defines its service territory.
4. The target load for this substation will be the
sum of all loads in its service territory.

4
SUBSTATION LOCATION

The perpendicular bisector rule for planning expansion

5
THE RATING OF A
SUBSTATION
 The additional capacity requirements of a
system with increasing load density can be
met by:
◦ Either holding the service area of a given
substation constant and increasing its capacity
◦ Developing new substations and thereby holding
the rating of the given substations constant.

6
THE RATING OF A SUBSTATION

Square Shaped Distribution Substation Service Area

7
THE RATING OF A SUBSTATION
 Square Shaped
 Serves total load of each feeder is, S4 = A4 x D kVA
 Where,
◦ S4 is kVA load served by one of four feeder emanating from a feed
point.
◦ A4 is area served by one of four feeders emanating from a feed point,
mi2
◦ D : load density, kVA/mi2
 S4 = l42 x D kVA
◦ Since, A4 = l42
 TSn = n x D x An = total kVA supplied from feed point (size)
◦ N is no of feeder

8
THE RATING OF A SUBSTATION

2 2
6 6

Hexagonally shaped service area supplied

9
THE RATING OF A SUBSTATION

 Hexagonally shaped
l6
A6  xl6  0.578 xl62
3
◦ A6 = area served by one of six feeders emanating
from a feed point, mi2
◦ l6 2 = linear dimensions of a primary feeder service
area, mi
 Each feeder serves a total load, S6 = A6 x D
kVA or S6 = 0.578 x D x l62

10
THE RATING OF A SUBSTATION
Substation Service Area served by n primary feeder

The total kVA load served by one of n feeders


In
Sn    n x tan 
2
dS Dxl
x 0
11
VOLTAGE DROP CALCULATION
(2 / 3xln ) K (nxDxAn )
%VDn 
n
or

%VDn  (2 / 3xln xK )S n
 Where
◦ % VDn = percent voltage drop in primary feeder circuit
◦ 2/3 x ln = effective length of primary feeder
◦ K = % VD/(A.mi) of the feeder (the value of K is obtained from Figure)
◦ An = Area served by one feeder
◦ n = number of primary feeders
◦ D = Load density.

12
VOLTAGE DROP CALCULATION
The K constant for conductors

13
Example
To illustrate distribution substation sizing and spacing, assume a
squared-shaped distribution substation service area assume that the
substation is served by three phase four wire 2.4/4.16 kV grounded
wye primary feeders. The feeders mains are made of 2 AWG cooper
conductors with maximum current capacity is 230 A. Assume a
lagging load power factor of 0.9 and a 1000 kVA/km uniformly
distributed load density. Calculate the following :-

1. Maximum load per feeder


2. Substation size
3. Substation spacing
4. Total percentage voltage drop from the feed point the end of the
main
5. If the distribution substation service is hexagon shaped, calculate
2-4

14