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MODULE 3:

ESSENTIAL PHARMACY
LITERATURE

Ms. Kristine Mae F. Gante, RPh


School of Health Sciences – Pharmacy Department
Saint Paul University Philippines
TOPIC OUTLINE
III. Essential Pharmacy Literatures
A. Primary Pharmaceutical
Literatures
B. Secondary Pharmaceutical
Literatures
C. Tertiary Pharmaceutical
Literatures
INTRODUCTION
• Due to the tremendous growth of the
pharmacy profession:
– different innovations in pharmaceutical
technology

– breakthrough in scientific and clinical


research have contributed to the many
changes that affects the pharmacy services.
INTRODUCTION
• The pharmacist is in constant
need of recent/latest
information:
–Concerning drugs
–Pharmaceutical products
–Disease state
INTRODUCTION
• For any given query, the
pharmacist MUST:
–Prioritize resources available
–Know the content of the source
–Proficient in searching the info
PHARMACY LITERATURE
• is defined as written or
printed sources of information
relating to pharmaceutical
services.
• Drug information resources
DRUG INFORMATION RESOURCES
• Drug Information
–Is current, critically
examined, relevant data
about drugs and drug use in
a given patient or situation
DRUG INFORMATION RESOURCES
• Current
–Uses the most recent, up-
to-date sources possible
DRUG INFORMATION RESOURCES
• Critically Examined Information should
meet the following criteria:
–More than one source should be used when
appropriate
–The extent of agreement of sources should
be determined; if sources do not agree,
good judgment should be used.
DRUG INFORMATION RESOURCES
• Critically Examined Information should
meet the following criteria:
–The plausibility of information, based on
clinical circumstances, should be
determined
DRUG INFORMATION RESOURCES
• Relevant Information
–Must be presented in a manner that
applies directly to the
circumstances under consideration
–E.g. Patient parameters, therapeutic
objectives, alternative approaches
TYPES OF LITERATURE
I. Primary Literatures
II. Secondary Literatures
III. Tertiary Literatures
PRIMARY LITERATURE
• Consist of researches or recent
studies that are newly published.
• It provides details of research
methodology and scientific results
that may lead to therapeutic
conclusions.
PRIMARY LITERATURE
• Examples:
–Theses
–Dissertations
–Periodicals
–Journals
–Official publications
PRIMARY LITERATURE
• Examples:
–Conference proceedings
–Minutes of the meetings
–Patents, standards, and trade
literature (drug leaflets)
PERIODICALS
• As important as books
• Popularly known as Journals,
serials, magazines, and bulletins
• ADVANTAGE: reduction in the
time of lag between the discovery
of an idea and its publication
Classification of Periodicals or Journals

• Based on Frequency of
publication
–Weekly, monthly, quarterly
issues
–Annually as per volume.
Classification of Periodicals or Journals

• Based on Sources
a) Primary periodicals- print out of an
original research.
b) Secondary periodicals- print out of
a portion of the original research
which fits the needs of the
researcher.
Classification of Periodicals or Journals

• Based on publisher
–Academic institutions
–Professional/scientific association
–Government agencies
–Research institutions
–Commercial firms
–Individuals
Classification of Periodicals or Journals

• Based on Geographic distribution


–Local, state, regional
–National
–International
Classification of Periodicals or Journals

• Based on Scope
–Scientific periodical
• are scholarly publications with original
research report
• Also known as research journal
• Such periodicals have an editorial board of
eminent scientists who determine editorial
policy.
Classification of Periodicals or Journals

• Based on Scope
–Scientific periodical
• American Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
• Canadian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Classification of Periodicals or Journals

• Based on Scope
–Professional periodicals
• Less technical and scientific than scientific periodicals
• Have a more practical basis
• Concentrates on the practical aspect of the profession
• Published by professional association
• Official voice of the society
Classification of Periodicals or Journals

• Based on Scope
–Professional periodicals
• American Journal of Hospital Pharmacy
• American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education
BENEFITS OF PRIMARY LITERATURES
• Journals enables pharmacists to:
–Keep abreast of professional news
–Learn how a second clinician handle a
problem
–Keep up with new developments in
pathophysiology, diagnostic agents, and
therapeutic regimens
BENEFITS OF PRIMARY LITERATURES
• Journals enables pharmacists to:
–Distinguish useful from useless or even
harmful therapy
–Enhance communication with other health
care professionals and consumers
–Obtain continuing education credits
BENEFITS OF PRIMARY LITERATURES
• Journals enables pharmacists to:
–Share opinions with other health care
professionals through letters to the editor
columns
–Prepare for the Board Examination in
pharmacotherapy, nutrition support, etc.
ADVANTAGES OF PRIMARY LITERATURES

• Access to more detailed information


• Personally assess the utility and
validity of study results.
• More recent than secondary and
tertiary literature
LIMITATION/DISADVANTAGES OF PRIMARY
LITERATURES
• This does not guarantee the article is
accurate.

• Many articles contain inadequacies


that became apparent as the ability to
evaluate drug information improves.
LIMITATION/DISADVANTAGES OF PRIMARY
LITERATURES
• May provide misleading conclusions
based on only 1 trial
• Need to have good skills in medical lit
evaluation
• Time needed to evaluate the large
volume of lit available
SECONDARY LITERATURES
• a second hand information which is
made widely and easily available to the
researcher
• serve as a guide information that has
been published in the primary literature
–Abstract and index.
INDEX & ABSTRACT
• Used to locate a given article or the
writing on a particular author or
material on a given topic
INDEXING SERVICES
• Provides only bibliographic information
that is indexed by topic
–Title of the article
–Author
–Title of periodical in which the article is
printed with volume
–Page and date of publication
INDEXING SERVICES
• Provides only bibliographic information
that is indexed by topic
–Example: Science Citation Index
–Notes citation of author and journal articles
–Updated on a weekly basis
ABSTRACTING SERVICES
• Provides brief description of information
contained in a specific citation
• Harvey Whitney Books
–A newsletter that abstracts international
literatures pertaining to pharmaco-therapy,
DI, factors influencing drug action
–Published on a monthly basis
ABSTRACTING SERVICES
• International Pharmaceutical Abstract
–Provides access to both journal articles and
meeting abstract
–Available in index and CD-ROM format,
and via outline services
–Published semiannually
ABSTRACTING SERVICES
• BIOSIS
–A comprehensive coverage of the
meeting or conference literature
BENEFITS OF SECONDARY LITERATURES
• The sources provides sufficient
information to serve as reference for
answering drug information requests.

• Valuable tool for quick and selective


screening of primary literature
LIMITATIONS OF SECONDARY LITERATURES

• Each indexing or abstracting service


reviews a finite number of journal.
Therefore, relying on only one
service can greatly hinder the
thoroughness of a literature search.
LIMITATIONS OF SECONDARY LITERATURES

• The substantial difference in lag time


among various services.
• Lag time
–the interval between publication of an
article and citation of an article in an
index
AVAILABILITY OF SECONDARY RESOURCES

1. Paper/Print Form
• Advantages: cheaper and can browse
for new information
• Disadvantages: time-consuming and
can be searched only by 1 user at a
time
AVAILABILITY OF SECONDARY RESOURCES

2. Electronic Databases
• Advantages:
–More frequent updating of listings and
information
–More rapid search
–Unlimited number of people can use
AVAILABILITY OF SECONDARY RESOURCES

2. Electronic Databases
• Disadvantages
–More costly
–Use terms a database is using
TERTIARY LITERATURE
• The most commonly used sources of
information

• Easy to use, concise and compact

• Referred to as general literature


TERTIARY LITERATURE
• Encyclopedias
• Dictionaries
• Textbooks
• Standard reference books handbook
• Directories
• Yearbooks
ENCYCLOPEDIAS
• Because of the time lag in getting
such work into print, the information
found in encyclopedias is usually out
of date.
ENCYCLOPEDIAS
• Most useful encyclopedias are:
–Encyclopedias of Biological Sciences
–The Encyclopedia of Chemistry
–McGraw Hill Encyclopedia of Science
and Technology
–Encyclopedia of Biochemistry
DICTIONARIES
• Pharmacy Students must have:
–Webster’s New Collegiate Dictionary
–Blakiston’s Gould Medical Dictionary
–Dorland’s Illustrated Medical
Dictionary
–Stedman’s Medical Dictionary
DICTIONARIES
• Pharmacists must be familiar with:
–Dictionary of Pharmaceutical Sciences
–Medical Abbreviations
–Dictionary of Organic Compounds
–Butterwoth’s Medical Dictionary
–The Condensed Medical Dictionary
HANDBOOKS
• Compilations of facts and figures in a
form which can be consulted with
ease (usually one volume)

• Information and scientific date are in


tabular form
HANDBOOKS
• Manual • Bench book
• Data book • Source book
• Reference book • Tables
• Companion • Vade mecum
HANDBOOKS
• A convenient and practical source of
quantitative quick reference, reliable
information

• Revised and updated often


HANDBOOKS
• Handbook of Physics – by E.W. Condon Odishaw
ed.
• Handbook of Pharmacology – by W. Cuttings
• Langue’s Handbook of Chemistry Merck
• Manual of Diagnosis of Therapy – by D.N .
Holvey
• Merck Index of Chemicals and Drugs
• Pharmaceutical Handbook
DIRECTORIES
• Are lists of names and addresses which
serve to supply information about
persons, organizations, or places

• These lists are updated and if revised


annually, the title frequency uses the
term yearbook.
DIRECTORIES
• Encyclopedia of Association
• Haye’s Druggist Directory
• Worlds Directory of Schools of
Pharmacy
YEARBOOKS
• Annual surveys relevant to the
pharmaceutical or allied science
– Advances in Pharmaceutical Sciences
– Drug Metabolism Review
– Progress in Medicinal Chemistry
– Advances in Chemotherapy
– McGraw Hill Yearbook of Science and
Technology
TREATISE
• Is a comprehensive, exhaustive,
systematic, sometimes critical
approach to a broad topic or to a
whole field of knowledge
• Is extensively documented
• Generally written for the specialist
MONOGRAPH
• Is a single account of a written topic
• It tries to be systematically
comprehensive without including
background and historical data such
as those that would be found in a
treatise.
TEXTBOOK
• Serves the prime function of
presenting the principles of a topic
or discipline in such a way that the
information is used as the basis for
instruction in the subject.
ESSENTIAL PHARMACY REFERENCES
• Remington’s The Science and Practice
of Pharmacy revised every 5 years
• Poisoning Toxicology Symptoms
Treatment by JK Arena
• Clinical Pharmacy Practice by C/W/
Blissit
ESSENTIAL PHARMACY REFERENCES
• The Pharmacological Basis of
Therapeutics by Goodman and
Gilman
• Hospital Pharmacy by WE Hassan
• Physical Pharmacy by AN Martin
• Drug-Induced Diseases by L Meyer
ESSENTIAL PHARMACY REFERENCES
• Biopharmaceutical and
Pharmacokinetics by RE Notari
• Kremer’s and Urdang’s History of
Pharmaceutical Chemistry by G
Sonnodecker
• Textbooks of Organic and Medicinal
Chemistry by C Wilson
ESSENTIAL PHARMACY REFERENCES
• Handbook of Non-Prescription
Drugs
• Merck Manual of Diagnosis and
Therapy
Benefits/Advantages of Tertiary Literatures

• General reference books can provide


easy and convenient access to a
broad spectrum of related topics.
• Easy to use
• Concise overview of info on a
specific topic
Benefits/Advantages of Tertiary Literatures

• Compact
• Convenient
• Fairly complete information
Limitations/Disadvantages of Tertiary
Literatures

• It could take several years to


publish a text, so information
available in textbook might not
include the most recent
development in the field.
Limitations/Disadvantages of Tertiary
Literatures
• The author of a textbook might not have
done a thorough search of the literature,
so pertinent data could have been
omitted.
• An author also might have
misinterpreted the primary and
secondary literature.
Limitations/Disadvantages of Tertiary
Literatures
• Information may not be complete due
to space limitations of the book or
incomplete searches by the author
when writing the book
• Human bias and lack of expertise by
authors
Pointers for Evaluating Tertiary Resources

• Appropriate experience/expertise of
the author in the area
• Timely information based on
publication date
• Information supported by
appropriate citations
Pointers for Evaluating Tertiary Resources

• Relevant information
• Absence of bias or blatant
errors
General Stepwise approach in searching for
Information

Query
Consult news/websites
General but less
Tertiary Literature current information

Direct the user to


Secondary Literature Primary literature

Access to detailed
Primary Literature info, most recent info
End of Presentation
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