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An Introduction of

3GPP Long Term Evolution (LTE)

Mujib Tamboli
Reference
 http://www.tcs.com “LTE-Advanced: Future of Mobile Broadband,”
TATA Consultancy Services
 Takehiro Nakamura ,“Proposal for Candidate Radio Interface Technolo
gies for IMT‐Advanced Bas d on LTE Release 10 and Beyond,”
3GPP TSG‐RAN Chairman
 “3GPP LTE Channels and MAC Layer,” EventHelix.com Inc. 2009
 Ahmed Hamza, Network Systems Laboratory Simon Fraser University,
“Long Term Evolution (LTE) - A Tutorial,” October 13, 2009
 Jim Zyren, “Overview of the 3GPP Long Term Evolution Physical
Layer,” Document Number: 3GPP EVOLUTIONWP Rev0 07/2007
 David Astély, Erik Dahlman, Anders Furuskär, Ylva Jading, Magnus
Lindström, and Stefan Parkvall, Ericsson Research, “LTE: The
Evolution of Mobile Broadband” , IEEE Communications Magazine,
April 2009

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Outline
 History of 3GPP LTE
 Basic Concepts of LTE
 Introduction of LTE Protocol
 Compare with LTE and LTE-Advanced
 Conclusion

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What is LTE ?
 In Nov. 2004, 3GPP began a project to
define the long-term evolution (LTE) of
Universal Mobile Telecommunications
System (UMTS) cellular technology
 Higher performance
 Backwards compatible
 Wide application

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Evolution of Radio Access
Technologies
802.16m

802.16d/e

 LTE (3.9G) :
3GPP release 8~9
 LTE-Advanced :
3GPP release 10+
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LTE Basic Concepts
 LTE employs Orthogonal Frequency
Division Multiple Access (OFDMA) for
downlink data transmission and Single
Carrier FDMA (SC-FDMA) for uplink
transmission

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Multipath-Induced Time Delays Result
in Inter-Symbol Interference (ISI)

βS(t-m)
y (t )  S (t )   S (t  m)  n(t )
S(t)

y(t) : output signal


S(t) : input signal
S(t-m) : delayed m time input signal
n(t) : noise
y(t)

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Equalizers in Receiver
 Against Frequency Selective Fading
 Channel transform function Hc(f)

y (t )  S (t )  S (t  m) H c ( f )  1  e  j 2fm

 Equalizers transform function Heq(f) (Receiver)

1 1
Hc ( f )  
H c ( f ) 1  e  j 2fm

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Frequency Selective Fading
 the coherence bandwidth of the channel is
smaller than the bandwidth of the signal

Frequency Correlation > 0.9


Bc = 1 / 50α α is r.m.s. delay spread

It may be useless for increasing transmission power


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Cyclic Prefixes

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FDM vs. OFDM

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LTE-Downlink (OFDM)
 Improved spectral
efficiency
 Reduce ISI effect
by multipath
 Against frequency
selective fading

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LTE Uplink (SC-FDMA)
 SC-FDMA is a new single carrier multiple access
technique which has similar structure and
performance to OFDMA
A salient
advantage of SC-
FDMA over
OFDM is low to
Peak to Average
Power Ratio
(PAPR) :
Increasing
battery life 13
Multi-antenna techniques

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Generic Frame Structure
 Allocation of physical resource blocks
(PRBs) is handled by a scheduling function
at the 3GPP base station (eNodeB)

Frame 0 and frame 5 (always downlink)


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Resource Grid

 One frame is 10ms


 10 subframes

 One subframe is 1ms


 2 slots
 One slot is 0.5ms
 N resource blocks
[ 6 < N < 110]
 One resource block is 0.5ms
and contains 12 subcarriers
from each OFDM symbol
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LTE spectrum (bandwidth and
duplex) flexibility

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LTE Downlink Channels

Paging Control Channel

Paging Channel

Physical Downlink Shared Channel

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LTE Uplink Channels

Random Access Channel

CQI report
Physical Uplink Shared Channel

Physical Radio Access Channel

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LTE Release 8 Key Features
(1/2)
 High spectral efficiency
 OFDM in Downlink
 Single‐Carrier FDMA in Uplink
 Very low latency
 Short setup time & Short transfer delay
 Short hand over latency and interruption time
 Support of variable bandwidth
 1.4, 3, 5, 10, 15 and 20 MHz
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LTE Release 8 Key Features
(2/2)
 Compatibility and interworking with earlier
3GPP Releases
 FDD and TDD within a single radio access
technology
 Efficient Multicast/Broadcast

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Evolution of LTE-Advanced
 Asymmetric transmission bandwidth
 Layered OFDMA
 Advanced Multi-cell
Transmission/Reception Techniques
 Enhanced Multi-antenna Transmission
Techniques
 Support of Larger Bandwidth in LTE-
Advanced
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Asymmetric transmission
bandwidth
 Symmetric transmission
 voice transmission : UE to UE
 Asymmetric transmission
 streaming video : the server to the UE (the downlink)

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Layered OFDMA
 The bandwidth of basic frequency block is,
15–20 MHz
 Layered OFDMA radio access scheme in
LTE-A will have layered transmission
bandwidth, support of layered environments
and control signal formats

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Advanced Multi-cell
Transmission/Reception Techniques
 In LTE-A, the advanced multi-cell
transmission/reception processes helps in
increasing frequency efficiency and cell
edge user throughput
 Estimation unit
 Calculation unit
 Determination unit
 Feedback unit
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Enhanced Multi-antenna
Transmission Techniques
 In LTE-A, the MIMO scheme has to be further improved
in the area of spectrum efficiency, average cell throughput
and cell edge performances
 In LTE-A the antenna configurations of 8x8 in DL and 4x4
in UL are planned

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Enhanced Techniques to Extend
Coverage Area
 Remote Radio Requirements (RREs) using optical
fiber should be used in LTE-A as effective
technique to extend cell coverage

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Support of Larger Bandwidth in
LTE-Advanced
 Peak data rates up to 1Gbps are expected
from bandwidths of 100MHz. OFDM adds
additional sub-carrier to increase bandwidth

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LTE vs. LTE-Advanced

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Conclusion
 LTE-A helps in integrating the existing
networks, new networks, services and
terminals to suit the escalating user demands
 LTE-Advanced will be standardized in the
3GPP specification Release 10 (LTE-A) and
will be designed to meet the 4G
requirements as defined by ITU

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Backup

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LTE Downlink Logical Channels

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LTE Downlink Logical Channels

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LTE Downlink Transport Channel

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LTE Downlink Transport Channel

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LTE Downlink Physical Channels

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LTE Downlink Physical Channels

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LTE Uplink Logical Channels

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LTE Uplink Transport Channel

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LTE Uplink Physical Channels

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