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Portland Cement

Concrete
By: Pamat, Ryan
&
Arana, Arrah Zosane
Introduction
Concrete, usually Portland Cement Concrete (for its visual
resemblance to Portland stone), is a composite material composed
of fine and course aggregates bonded together with a fluid cement
(cement paste) that hardens overtime – most frequently in the past a
lime based-cement binder, such as lime putty, but sometimes with
other hydraulic cements, such as calcium aluminate cement or
Portland cement.
When aggregate is mixed with dry Portland cement and water,
the mixture forms a fluid slurry that is easily poured and
moulded into shape. The cement reacts with the water and
other ingredients to form a hard matrix that binds the materials
together into a durable stone-like material that has may uses.
Often, additives (such as pozzolans or superplasticizers) are
included in the mixture to improve the physical properties of
the wet mix or the finished material. Most concrete is poured
with reinforcing materials (such as rebar) embedded to provide
tensile strength, yielding reinforced concrete.
History
Ancient times
Small-scale production of concrete-like materials was pioneered by
the Nabatean traders who occupied and controlled a series of oases
and developed a small empire in the regions of south Syria and
northern Jordan from the 4th century BC. They discovered the
advantages of hydraulic lime, with some self-cementing properties,
by 700 BC. They built kilns to supply mortar for the construction of
rubble masonry houses, concrete floors, and underground
waterproof cisterns.
Classical Era
In the Ancient Egyptian and later Roman eras, builders discovered
that adding volcanic ash to the mix allowed it to set underwater.
Concrete floors were found in the royal palace of Tiryns, Greece,
which dates roughly to 1400-1200 BC. Lime mortars were used in
Greece, Crete, and Cyprus in 800 BC. The Assyrian Jerwin Aqueduct
(688 BC) made use of waterproof concrete. Concrete used for
construction in many ancient structures.
Concrete
Concrete is a construction material composed of cement, fine
aggregates (sand) and coarse aggregates mixed with water which
hardens with time.
In the building construction, concrete is used for the construction of
foundations, columns, beams, slabs and other load bearing elements.
Freshly prepared concrete till it has not yet set is called wet or green
concrete. After it has thoroughly set and fully hardened it is called set
concrete or just concrete.
Types of Concrete and its Uses
Concrete are classified into different types:
1. According to binding material used in concrete.
2. According to design of concrete.
3. According to purpose of concrete.
Classification According to Binding
Material
According to binding material used concrete are classified into two
types.
1. Cement concrete
2. Lime concrete
Cement Concrete
The concrete consisting of cement, sand and coarse
aggregates mixed in a suitable proportions in addition to
water is called cement concrete. In this type of concrete
cement is used as a binding material, sand as fine aggregates
and gravel, crushed stones as coarse aggregates.
In cement concrete useful proportions of its ingredients are:

CLASS MIXTURE
(cement:sand:gravel)
AA 1:1½:3
A 1:2:3
B 1:2½:5
C 1:3:6
Lime Concrete
The concrete consisting of lime, fine aggregates, and coarse
aggregates mixed in a suitable proportions with water is called
lime concrete.
In this type of concrete hydraulic lime is generally used as a
binding material, sand and cinder are used as fine aggregates
and broken bricks, gravel can be used as coarse aggregates.
Placing Of Lime Concrete
Placing of concrete shall be completed within three hours of adding
water in case of concrete is prepared with hydraulic lime. Concrete
should be well cured for a period of at least 10 days.

Uses
Lime concrete is generally used for the sake of economy in foundation
works, under floors, over roof and where cement is not cheaply and
easily available in required quantity.
Classification According to Design of
Concrete
1. Plain cement concrete.
2. Reinforced cement concrete (RCC).
3. Pre-stressed cement concrete (PCC).
Plain Cement Concrete
The cement concrete in which no reinforcement is provided is called
plain cement concrete or mass cement concrete. This type of concrete
is strong in taking compressive stresses but weak in taking tensile
stresses.

Uses
Plain cement concrete is commonly used in for foundation work and
flooring of buildings.
Reinforced Cement Concrete (RCC)
The cement concrete in which reinforcement is embedded for taking tensile
stress is called reinforced cement concrete.
In this type of concrete the steel reinforcement is to be used generally in the
form of round bars,6mm to 32mm dia. This concrete is equally strong in
taking tensile, compressive and shear stresses. Usual proportions of
ingredients in a reinforced concrete are 1part of cement:1-2parts of sand: 2-
4parts of crushed stones or gravel.

Uses
RCC is commonly used for construction of slabs, beams, columns,
foundation, precast concrete.
Reinforced Cement Concrete (RCC)
Pre-stressed Cement Concrete (PCC)
The cement concrete in which high compressive stresses are artificially
induced before their actual use is called pre-stresses cement concrete. in
this type of cement concrete, the high compressive stresses are induced
by pre-tensioning the reinforcement before placing the concrete, and the
reinforcement is released when final setting of the concrete take place.

Uses
This concrete can take up high tensile and compressive stresses without
development of cracks. The quantity of reinforcement can be
considerably reduced by using this concrete.
Pre-stressed Cement Concrete (PCC)
Classification According to Purpose
According to purpose concrete is classified into following types:
a. Vacuum Concrete:
The cement concrete from which entrained air and excess water is
removed after placing it, by suction with the help of vacuum pump is
called vacuum concrete.
In this concrete the excess water which is added to increase workability
but not required for the hydration of cement of concrete is removed by
forming vacuum chamber.
Vacuum Concrete
b. Air Entrained Concrete
The concrete prepared by mixing aluminum in it is called air
entrained, cellular or aerated concrete. In this concrete bubbles of
hydrogen gas are liberated which forms cell and make the concrete
cellular.

Uses
This concrete is used for lining walls and roofs for heat and sound
insulation purpose.
Air Entrained Concrete
c. Light weight concrete
The concrete prepared by using coke breeze, cinder or slag as coarse
aggregate is called light weight concrete. The concrete is light in
weight and posses heat insulating properties.

Uses
This concrete is used in making precast structural units for partition
and wall lining.
Water Cement Ratio
 In the preparation of concrete the water cement ratio is very
important.
 For normal construction the water cement ratio is usually 0.5.
 Adding to much water will reduce the strength of concrete and can
cause segregation.
Slump Test
Slump test is a test conducting before concrete to be used for casting. The
purpose of slump test is to determine the water content in concrete and its
workability.
Equipment for slump test:
1. Base Plate.
2. Trowel To Mix Concrete.
3. Steel Tamping Rod.
4. Slump Cone.
5. Ruler.
Slump Test Procedure
STEP 1:
Fill cone 1/3 full by volume and
rod 25 times with 5/8-inch
diameter x 24-inch-long
hemispherical tip steel tamping
rod. (This is a specification
requirement which will produce
nonstandard results unless
followed exactly). Distribute
rodding evenly over the entire
cross section of the sample.
STEP 2
Fill cone 2/3 full by volume.
Rod this layer 25 times with
rod penetrating into, but not
through first layer. Distribute
rodding evenly over the entire
cross section of the layer.
STEP 3
Remove the excess concrete from
the top of the cone, using tamping
rod as a screed. Clean overflow
from base of cone. Immediately lift
cone vertically with slow, even
motion. Do not jar the concrete or
tilt the cone during this process.
Invert the withdrawn cone, and
place next to, but not touching the
slumped concrete. (Perform in 5-10
seconds with no lateral or torsional
motion.)
STEP 4
Lay a straight edge across the
top of the slump cone. Measure
the amount of slump in inches
from the bottom of the straight
edge to the top of the slumped
concrete at a point over the
original center of the base. The
slump operation shall be
completed in a maximum
elapsed time of 21/2 minutes.
Discard concrete.
Slump Value for Different Concrete
 Mass concrete and road work 2.5 to 5cm
 Ordinary beams and slabs 5 to 10cm
 Columns and retaining walls 7.5 to 12.5cm
Vibration of Concrete
Vibration of concrete is carried out for the sake of consolidation. The main
objective of vibration is to compact the concrete and to achieve the maximum
possible density of concrete. Almost 5 to 8% by volume of freshly placed
concrete in the form is occupied by air bubbles. Air bubbles occupy this space
in a high workable concrete mix.
Vibration reduces the internal friction by randomizing concrete. This able the
concrete to rearrange the particles (these particles include coarse aggregates
and fine aggregates). When rearrangement of particles occur than a close
configuration of coarse aggregate is achieved. Close packing expels most of
the entrapped air in between, but still some air bubbles left.
During the vibration of concrete, site engineer should ensure that
vibration is applied to the entire mass of concrete uniformly. This is
so, because if not applied uniformly than some volume of concrete
get fully compact and some parts remain un-compacted. Site
engineer should also strictly follow the vibration time period,
because over vibration of concrete cause segregation and bleeding
of concrete. Therefore, proper consistency is required during the
vibration.
Concrete Vibrators
There are many of concrete vibrators. Some vibrators vibrate concrete
internally and there are also many vibrators that vibrate the concrete
externally. Vibrators can be classified as:
1. Internal Vibrators
2. External Vibrators
3. Vibrating Tables
External Vibration
Internal Vibration
Vibrating Table
Compaction Factor Test
Compaction factor test is the workability test for concrete conducted
in laboratory. The compaction factor is the ratio of weights of
partially compacted to fully compacted concrete. It was developed by
Road Research Laboratory in United Kingdom and is used to
determine the workability of concrete.
The compaction factor test is used for concrete which have low
workability for which slump test is not suitable.
Procedure
1. Place the concrete sample gently in the upper hopper to its brim using
the and scoop and level it.
2. Cover the cylinder.
3. Open the trapdoor at the bottom of the upper hopper so that concrete
fall into the lower hopper. Push the concrete sticking on its sides gently
with the rod.
4. Open the trapdoor od the lower hopper and allow the concrete to fall
into the cylinder below.
5. Cut off the excess of concrete above the top level of the cylinder using
trowels and level it.
6. Clean the outside of the cylinder.
7. Weight the cylinder with concrete to the nearest 10g. This weight is
known as the weight of partially compacted concrete (W1).
8. Empty the cylinder and then refill it with the same concrete mix in
layers approximately 5cm deep, each layer being heavily rammed to
obtain full compaction.
9. Level the top surface.
10. Weight the cylinder with fully compacted. This weight is known as
the weight of fully compacted concrete (W2).
11. Find the weight of empty cylinder (W).
Calculation of Compaction Factor Value
The compaction factor is defined as the ratio of the weight of partially
compacted concrete to the weight fully compacted concrete. It shall
normally to be stated to the nearest second decimal place.
(W1−W)
Compaction factor value =
(W2−W)

The compaction factor values ranges from 0.7 to 0.95.


A compaction factor of 0.7 represents a mix of poor workability, 0.92
represents medium and 0.95 represents good workability.
Curing of Concrete
Curing of concrete is a method by which the concrete is protected
against loss of moisture required for hydration and kept within the
recommended temperature range. Curing will increase the strength and
decrease the permeability of hardened concrete. Curing also helps in
migrating thermal and plastic cracks, which can severely impact
durability of structures.
Compression Test
Compressive strength of concrete test provides an idea about all the
characteristics of concrete. By this single test one judge that whether
concreting has been done properly or not. Concrete compressive
strength for general construction varies from 15MPa (2200 psi) to
30MPa (4400 psi) and higher in commercial and industrial structures.

Depending on the applied code, the test sample may be cylinder (15cm
x 30cm) is common or cube (15cm x 15cm x 15cm) is the most
common.
Compressive Strength Test Idea
Concrete is poured in the mould and compacted properly to reduce the
amount of voids.
After 24 hours, moulds are removed and test specimens are then
placed in the water for curing.
After the specified curing period (3,7,14,21 and 28days), specimens
are tested by the compression testing machine.
Load is applied gradually until specimen failure.
Splitting Tensile Strength Test
The tensile strength od concrete is one of the basic and important
properties which greatly affect the extent and size of cracking in
structures.
Moreover, the concrete is very weak in tension due to its brittle nature.
Hence, it is not expected to resist the direct tension. So, concrete
develops cracks when tensile forces exceed its tensile strength.
Therefore, it is necessary to determine the tensile strength of concrete
to determine the load at which the concrete members may crack.