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(Purita P. Bilbao, Ed.D.

)
Scope

Sequence

Continuity

Integration

Articulation

Balance
All the content, topics, learning
experiences, and organizing threads
comprising the educational plan. (Tyler in
Ornstein, 2004)
It does not only refers to the cognitive
content but also affective and
psychomotor.
Broad, limited, simple, general are the
words used to describe the scope.
Decision making of the teacher is
needed.
Curricular coverage
Time
Diversity
Maturity of the learners
Complexity of content
Level of education
Scope of the Curriculum can be divided
into chunks:
Units
Sub-units
Chapters
Sub-chapters

Each Chunk is guided by the general curriculum


objectives or goals.
Division of the content may use deductive principle.
Arrangement of scope is inductive.
Content Outline of the Curriculum may follow some
design:
Thematic
Linear
Logical
Contents and experiences are
arranged in hierarchical manner.
A particular order in which related
events, movements, or things
follow each other.
(Smith, Stanley and Shore, 1957)

Simple to complex learning – content &


experiences are organized from simple to
complex, concrete to abstract, easy to
difficult.
Prerequisite Learning- there are
fundamental things to be learned
ahead.
Whole to Part Learning –
overview before the specific
content or topics. Related to
gestalt principle.
Chronological learning – the
order of events is made as a basis
of sequencing the content and
experiences.
Concept- Inquiry-
World-Related
related related
sequence
sequence sequence

Learning- Utilization-
related related
sequence sequence
World-Related sequence

• Space – spatial relations will be the


basis for the sequence.
• Time – from the earliest to the most
recent
• Physical Attributes – the physical
characteristics of the phenomena such
as age, shape, size, brightness &
others.
Concept-related sequence
-how ideas are related together in logical
manner

• Class relations – group or set of things


that share common practices
• Propositional relations – a statement
that asserts something
Inquiry-related sequence

-based on the process of


generating, discovering &
verifying knowledge, content and
experiences are sequenced
logically and methodically
Learning-Related Sequence
- How people learn

• Empirical Prerequisites - based on


empirical studies where the
prerequisite is required before learning
the next level
• Familiarity – prior learning is important
in sequence
• Difficulty – easy content is taken
ahead than the difficult one
• Interest – use interesting
contents and experiences to
boost their appetite in learning
Continuity
Vertical repetition and recurring
appearances of the content provide
continuity in the curriculum. This process
enables the learner to strengthen the
permanency of learning and development of
skills.
Gerome Bruner calls this “spiral
curriculum” For learners to develop the
ideas, these have to be developed and
redeveloped in a spiral fashion in increasing
depth and breadth as the learners advance
Integration
“Everything is integrated and
interconnected. Life is a series of
emerging themes.” This is the essence
of integration in the curriculum design.
Organization is drawn from the world
themes from real life concerns.
Subject matter content or
disciplined content lines are erased
and isolation is eliminated.
Articulation
Can be done either vertically or
horizontally. In vertical articulation,
contents are arranged from level to
level or grade to grade so that the
content in a lower level is connected
to the next level. Horizontal
articulation happens at the same time
like social studies in grade six is
related to science in grade six.
Balance
Equitable assignment of content,
time, experiences and other elements
to establish balance is needed in
curriculum design. Too much or too
little of these elements maybe
disastrous to the curriculum. Keeping
the curriculum “in balance” requires
continuous fine tuning and review for
its effectiveness and relevance.
Guidelines in Curriculum Design
Pointers
• Curriculum design committee should
involve teachers, parents, administrators
and even students.
• School’s vision, mission, goals and
objectives should be reviewed and used as
a bases for curriculum design.
• The needs and the interests of the
learners, in particular, and the society, in
general, should be considered.
• Alternative curriculum design
should consider advantages and
disadvantages in terms of cost,
scheduling, class size, facilities
and persona; required.
• The curriculum design should take
into account cognitive, affective,
psychomotor, concepts and
outcomes.