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Salmonella infection is a common bacterial disease that affects the intestinal tract.
Salmonella bacteria typically live in animal and human intestines and are shed
through feces. Humans become infected most frequently through contaminated water
or food.
Salmonella was named after Daniel Elmer Salmon (1850–1914), an American
veterinary surgeon.
Salmonella can be transferred from animal-to-human and from human-to-human.
However, in sub-Saharan Africa, nontyphoidal Salmonella can be invasive and cause
paratyphoid fever, which requires immediate treatment with antibiotics.
The incubation period of Salmonella ranges from 6-72 hours after consumption og
contaminated food or water.

I. Non-invasive II. Invasive
Infection usually occurs when a person ingests
foods that contain a high concentration of the While in developed countries,
bacteria. Infants and young children are much
more susceptible to infection, easily achieved by nontyphoidal serotypes present
ingesting a small number of bacteria. In infants, mostly as gastrointestinal disease, in
infection through inhalation of bacteria-laden
dust is possible. sub-Saharan Africa, these serotypes
An infection can only begin after living can create a major problem in
salmonellae reach the gastrointestinal tract. bloodstream infections and are the
Some of the microorganisms are killed in the
stomach, while the surviving ones enter the small most commonly isolated bacteria
intestine and multiply in tissues. from the blood of those presenting
with fever.
Typhoid fever is caused by Salmonella serotypes which are strictly adapted to
humans or higher primates. In the systemic form of the disease, salmonellae pass
through the lymphatic system of the intestine into the blood of the patients (typhoid
form) and are carried to various organs (liver, spleen, kidneys) to form secondary foci
(septic form).
Endotoxins first act on the vascular and nervous apparatus, resulting in upset of
thermal regulation, and vomiting and diarrhea.
Salmonella infection is usually caused by eating raw or undercooked meat, poultry, eggs or egg
products. Most salmonella infections can be classified as stomach flu (gastroenteritis). Possible signs and
symptoms include:
Abdominal cramps
Blood in the stool
Signs and symptoms of salmonella infection generally last two to seven days. Diarrhea may last up to 10
days, although it may take several months before bowels return to normal.
Salmonella bacteria live in the intestines of people, animals and birds. Most people are
infected with salmonella by eating foods that have been contaminated by feces.
Commonly infected foods include:
Raw meat, poultry and seafood. Feces may get onto raw meat and poultry during the
butchering process. Seafood may be contaminated if harvested from contaminated water.
Raw eggs. While an egg's shell may seem to be a perfect barrier to contamination,
some infected chickens produce eggs that contain salmonella before the shell is even
formed. Raw eggs are used in homemade versions of mayonnaise and hollandaise sauce.
Fruits and vegetables. Some fresh produce, particularly imported varieties, may be
hydrated in the field or washed during processing with water contaminated with
salmonella. Contamination also can occur in the kitchen, when juices from raw meat and
poultry come into contact with uncooked foods, such as salads.
Salmonella infection usually isn't life- •Dehydration
threatening. However, in certain people,
especially infants and young children, If you can't drink enough to replace the fluid
you're losing from persistent diarrhea, you may
older adults, transplant recipients, become dehydrated.
pregnant women, and people with
weakened immune systems, the •Bacteremia
development of complications can be
If salmonella infection enters your bloodstream
dangerous. (bacteremia), it can infect tissues throughout your
•Reactive arthritis
People who have had salmonella are at higher
risk of developing reactive arthritis. Also known
as Reiter's syndrome.
1. Wash your hands
Washing your hands thoroughly can help prevent the transfer of salmonella bacteria
to your mouth or to any food you're preparing.
2. Keep things separate
To prevent cross-contamination: Store raw meat, poultry and seafood away from
other foods in your refrigerator.
3. Avoid eating raw eggs
Cookie dough, homemade ice cream and eggnog all contain raw eggs. If you must
consume raw eggs, make sure they've been pasteurized.