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BREEDS AND BREED DESCRIPTORS

Department of Livestock Production Management


COVS, GADVASU, Ludhiana
BREED: A breed may be defined as a group or
population of animals so closely linked by
ancestry that their primary identifying
characteristics are generally passed from
parent to offspring in uniform manner
(common descend, stable morphological features)

India: 26 Goat Breeds & 42 Sheep Breeds


GOAT BREEDS
CLASSIFICATION BASED ON UTILITY

• Dual purpose : Jamunapari, Beetal, Barbari, Jakhrana,


Surti etc.

• Meat type : Black Bengal, Osmanabadi, Sirohi, Mehsana,


Kutchi, Malabari, Ganjam etc

• Fibre type : Pashmina (eg. Changthangi and Chegu) or


hair (eg. Gaddi, Marwari etc).
CLASSIFICATION BASED ON REGION
NORTHERN NORTH-WETERN & SOUTHERN EASTERN REGION
TEMPERATE SEMI-ARID REGION PENINSULAR
HIMALAYAN REGION REGION

Gaddi Sirohi Sangamneri Ganjam


Chegu Marwari Malabari Black Bengal
Changthangi Jhakrana Osmanabadi Assam Hills
Barbari Kannaiadu
Jamunapari
Beetal
Mehsana
Gohilwadi
Zalawadi
Kutchi
Surti
INDIGENOUS GOAT BREEDS

GADDI : Kangra, Kullu, Chamba (HP); Dehradun, Nainital,


Tehrigarhwal and Chamoli hill (Uttaranchal).
Features: Medium-sized. Coat colour is mostly white, but black and brown and combinations of these are
also seen. Both sexes have large horns, directed upward and backward and occasionally twisted. Ears are
medium long and drooping. The nose line is convex. The udder is small and rounded, with small teats
placed laterally. The hair is white, lustrous and long.
CHANGTHANGI : Changthang (Leh) J&K
Features: Medium-sized animals. Half of the animals are white, the remainder black, grey or
brown. Both sexes have horns, generally large (range: 15 to 55 cm), turning outward, upward
and inward to form a semi-circle, but a wide variation exists in both shape and size.
CHEGU :Lahaul & Spiti valley (HP); Uttarkashi, Chamoli,
Pithoragarh, (Uttranchal)
Features: Medium-sized animals. The coat is usually white, mixed with grayish red. Both sexes have
horns, directed upward, backward and outward, with one or more twists. These goats are not very
different in conformation from Changthangi.
SIROHI : Sirohi, Tonk, Udaipur, Ajmer, Jalore dist. (Raj.)
Features: Compact, medium-sized animals. Coat colour predominantly brown, with light or dark brown
patches; a very few individuals are completely white. Most animals are wattled. Ears are flat and leaf-like,
medium-sized and drooping. Both sexes have small horns, curved upward and backward). Tail is medium
in length and curved upward. Udder is small and round, with small teats placed laterally.
MARWARI : Bikaner, Barmer, Jaiselmer, Jodhpur,
Nagore, Sikar dis. (Raj.)
Features: Medium-sized animals. Predominantly black with long shaggy hair coat. In about 5% of
individuals, white or brown patches are also observed. Beard is present in both sexes. Ears are flat,
medium in length and drooping; Both sexes have short, pointed horns, directed upward and backward. Tail
is small and thin. Udder is small and round, with small teats placed laterally.
BEETAL / AMRITSARI: Gurdaspur, Amritsar, Firozpur (Pb)
Feature: Large animals. Predominantly black or brown with white spots of differing sizes. The coat is
short and lustrous. The face line is convex, with typical Roman nose but not as prominent as in
Jamnapari. Ears are long and flat, curled and drooping. Both sexes have thick, medium-sized horns,
carried horizontally with a slight twist directed backward and upward. Tail is small and thin. The udder is
large and well developed, with large conical teats.
JAKHRANA : Jakhrana & Behror Tehsil of Alwar dis (Raj)
Features: Large animals. The coat, predominantly black with white spots on ears and muzzle, is short
and lustrous. Face line is straight. Forehead is narrow and slightly bulging. The breed is quite similar to
Beetal, the major difference being that Jhakrana is longer. Ear length is medium. Udder is large, with
large conical teats.
BARBARI: Etah, Aligarh, Hathras, Agra, Mathura (UP);
Bharatpur dis (Raj)
Features: Small animals, with compact body. The orbital bone is quite prominent, so that eyes appear
bulging. There is wide variation in coat colour, but white with small light brown patches is the most
typical. Ears are short, tubular, almost double, with the slit opening in front, erect, directed upward and
outward. Both sexes have twisted horns, medium in length and directed upward and backward. Bucks
have a large thick beard. Best goat under stall-feeding.
JAMUNAPARI : Chakarnagar (Etawah), Agra, Mathura dis
(UP) and Bhind, Morena dis (MP)
Features: Large animals. There is a great variation in coat colour, but the typical coat is white with
small tan patches on head and neck. The typical character of the breed is a highly convex nose line
with a tuft of hair, yielding a parrot mouth appearance. The ears are very long, flat and drooping. Both
sexes are horned. Tail is thin and short. A thick growth of hair on the buttocks, known as feathers,
obscures the udder when observed from behind. The udder is well developed, round, with large
conical teats.
EXOTIC GOAT BREEDS WITH
THEIR DISTRIBUTION AND UTILITY

Breed Distribution Utility


Sannen Switzerland Milk
Alpine France Milk
Anglo-Nubian England Meat and milk
Toggenburg Switzerland Milk and meat
Boer South Africa Meat
Angora Turkey & Asia Mohair
Minor
ALPINE: Perky ears, slightly dished faces and variable colours
such as black, tan, white or any combination of these. Horn in both
sexes.
NUBIAN / ANGLO-NUBIAN: Jersey of goat world (4-6 kg, 4 - 5%
fat), developed by crossing the bucks of Nubian breed (Egypt) &
Jamunapari (India) with the native British, Colour varies but brown or
white are common, Roman nose & long pendulous ear.
TOGGENBERG: Colour varies from brown, chocolate or fawn and
white markings occur down each side of the face from above the eyes to
the muzzle, edge of the ear , rump, tail, legs. Polled.
SAANEN: Milk queen of goat world, colour is pale cream to pale biscuit,
Polled, Hermaphroditism is common as associated with gene for polledness ,
2-5 kg, 3-4%, 8-10 months.
BOER: White bodies and distinctive brown heads, ears long and
pendulous, bucks weigh between 110-135 kg and mature does
between 90-100 kg
ANGORA: more like sheep.
Indigenous Sheep Breed (Utility)

Utility / produce Sheep breed

Apparel wool Kashmir Merino, Nilgiri synthetic, Hissardale,


Avivastra, Bharat Merino.

Carpet wool Chokla, Nali, Lohi, Pattanwadi, Tibetan,


Avikalin, Gaddi, Rampur Bushair, Bhakarwal,
Poonchi, Gurez, Changthangi, Magra, Sonadi,
Karnah.
Meat and carpet Muzzaffarnagri, Jalauni, Deccani, Ganjam,
wool Balangir, Shahabadi, Chottanagpuri, Marwari,
Jaisalmeri, Pugal, Malpura
Meat Nellore, Mandya, Hassan, Mecheri, Kilakarsal,
Vembur, Ramnad White, Madras Red, Tiruchi
Black, Kenguri
Indigenous Sheep Breed (Region)

Region Sheep breed

Northern Gaddi (Bhadarwah), Rampur-Bushair, Bhakarwal,


temperate region Poonchi, Karnah, Gurez, Kasmir-Merino, Changthangi.
North-Western, Chokla (Chapper /Shekhawati), Nali, Marwari, Magra
Central Arid & (Bikaneri), Jaisalmeri, Pugal, Malpura, Sonadi,
Semi-Arid region Patanwadi, Muzaffarnagri (Bulandshahri), Jalauni,
Hissardale, Avivastra, Bharat Merino, Avikalin.

Eastern region Chottanagpuri, Shahabadi, Balangir, Ganjam, Tibetan,


Bonpala.
Southern Deccani, Bellary, Nellore, Mandya (Bannur, Bandur),
peninsular region Hassan, Mecheri , Kilakarsal , Vembur , Coimbatore,
Nilgiri, Ramand White, Madras Red, Tiruchi Black ,
Kenguri.
Breeds of Sheep in different agro-ecological regions in India and their major
products.

North Temperate North-Western Arid Southern Peninsular Eastern


and Semi Arid

Bhakarwal (CW) Chokla (CW) Bellary (MCW) Balangir (MCW)


Changthangi (CW) Hissardale (AW) Coimbatore (MCW) Bonpala (MCW)
Gaddi (CW) Jaisalmeri (MCW) Daccani (M) Chottanagpuri (MC
Gurez (CW) Jalauni (MCW) Hassan (M) W)
Karnah (AW) Kheri (MCW) Kanguri (M) Ganjam (MCW)
Kashmir Merino(AW) Magra (CW) Kilakarsal (M) Garole (M)
Poonchi (CW) Malpura (MCW) Madras Red (M) Tibetan (CW)
Rampur Bushair(CW) Marwari (MCW) Mandya (M)
Muzaffarnagari(MCW) Mecheri (M)
Nali (CW) Nellore (M)
Patanwadi (CW) Nilgiri (AW)
Pugal (MCW) Rammand White (M)
Sonadi (MCW) Tiruchy Black (M)
Munjal(M) Vembur (M)
Kashmir Merino: This breed has originated from crosses of different
Merino types (at first Delaine Merinos, and subsequently Rambouillet
and Soviet Merinos) with predominantly migratory native sheep
breeds, viz. Gaddi, Bhakarwal and Poonchi. The level of inheritance in
the crossbred animals included in Kashmir Merino predominantly
varied from 50-75% but may vary from very low to almost 100% Merino.
As the animals are highly diversified because of a number of native
breeds involved, no definite descriptions of the breed can be given.
Bharat Merino: This fine-wool breed was evolved by crosses of
indigenous breeds with Rambouillet and Merino. Wool obtained is
4.2 kg, 21µ dia and 7.3 cm staple length.
Hissardale: The breed was synthesized in the earlier part of the
century at the Government Livestock Farm, Hissar (Haryana) through
crossing Australian Merino rams with Bikaneri (Magra) ewes by
stabilizing the exotic inheritance to about 75%.

Features: Small, with short legs, giving them a low-set appearance;


Leaf-like medium-sized ears. Most animals are polled; colour is
predominantly white, although some brown or black patches can also
be observed.
Avivastra: This fine-wool breed was evolved at the CSWRI, Avikanagar
through interbreeding and selection of Merino, Rambouillet x Chokla,
Nali (halfbred and 5/8th) base. Wool obtained is 2.3 kg, 21-22 µ dia
and 4.5 cm staple length.

Avimans: Mutton
Avikalin: This superior carpet wool breed was evolved at the CSWRI,
Avikanagar through interbreeding and selection of Rambouillet x
Malpura halfbreds.
Nellore: Nellore district and neighbouring areas of Prakasam and Ongole
districts of AP.

Features: TALLEST SHEEP BREED with little hair except at brisket, withers
and breech; Rams are horned but ewes are almost always polled; Ears are
long and drooping; Tail is short and thin; 86% of the animals carry wattles.
Mandya (Bannur, Bandur): Mandya district and bordering Mysore
district of Karnataka.

Features: SHORTEST SHEEP BREED; White in colour, but in some


cases, the face is light brown, which may extend upto the neck;
Possess a compact body with a typical reversed U-shaped wedge from
the rear. Ears are long, leaf-like and drooping; Tail is short and thin; A
large percentage of the animals carry wattles; Slightly Roman nose;
Both sexes are polled; Coat is extremely coarse and hairy. It is the best
meat breed of the country. There is a high incidence of cryptorchidism.
Exotic Breeds of Sheep

(a) Fine Wool breeds: Merino, Rambouillet, Polwarth


(b) Medium wool breeds: Corriedale, Hampshire, Cheviot
(b) Long wool breeds: Lincoln, Licester, Romney Marsh
(c) Mutton breeds: Suffolk, Dorset, Southdown
(d) Pelt breeds: Karakul
Merino: origin- Spain.
Features: Merino is s a thin-tailed, fine wool. Their face and legs are white
and skin is pink. Rams mostly have heavy, spiral horns, whereas ewes are
polled. Head and legs are generally covered with wool. They have long
been bred for wool production and do not carry the straight line and
compactness of mutton breeds.

Mature rams weigh about 75 kg and ewes about 65 kg. height of ram and
ewe is about 70 cm and 60 cm, respectively. Fleece production varies
widely depending on the environmental conditions and time of breeding,
but average is 4-5 kg for rams and 3-4 kg for ewes. The staple length is 5-
10 cm. Merino tends to be a seasonal breeder and this results in low
prolificacy and poor lamb crop.
Rambouillet : descended from the old Spanish Merino & developed
as a breed in France.
Features: White faced. The rams may have large, spiral horns or are
polled. Ewes are polled. They have a large head with white hair
around nose and ears. Face and legs are white and skin is pink. Ewes
are good mothers, quite prolific and are unequalled for range
qualities.

The Rambouillet as purebreds and in crosses with Indian breeds


have generally performed better than Soviet Merinos.
Suffolk: native of Suffolk and surrounding counties of England.

Features: Face is black. Ears are long and pointed and are
generally carried at a very slight droop or horizontally. The head
and ears are entirely free of wool and the black hair extends to a
line on the back base of the ears. There is no wool below the knees
and hocks. Both rams and ewes are polled although males
frequently have scurs. The breed is the foremost mutton breed.
Dorset: Native of southern England, especially to the counties of
Dorset and Somerset.
Features: Medium-sized. Body is moderately low-set, compact and of
medium degree of smoothness and quality. Back is generally strong
and the breed is generally deep-bodied. Face, ears and legs are
white in colour and practically free from wool. Ears of medium size,
thin, silky and carried well forward. Nostrils, lips and skin are pink.
Hooves are white.
Southdown: The native place in the Southdown chalk hills in south-
east England.
Features: Face, ears and legs are mouse coloured or light brown and
the skin is bright pink. The breed is polled, although scurs are found
sometimes on rams. Eyes are large, bright and prominent and ears are
of medium size and covered with short wool.
Corriedale: New Zealand and Australia, Merino-Lincoln cross
Karakul (Astrakan, Bokhara): The majority of karakul lamb pelts are
produced in Bokhara (USSR), Afghanistan, South-west Africa, Iran
and Iraq. The best pelts come from Bokhara, where the sheep is a fat-
tailed, coarse carpet wool type of breed.

The lamb pelts are produced through the slaughter of lambs within
24-48 hrs of birth (Persian) or through killing of unborn lambs
removed by slaughter/abortion of mothers at around 130-140 days
(broad (fat) tailed) of pregnancy. The latter type of pelts, known as
broad (fat) tailed Persian •are twice more valuable than the best type
produced by the former method. The quality of the pelt is determined
by the ornamental type of curls, size and tightness of curls, lustre
and weight of pelt.