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English holiday homework :

Ppt on the topic protection


of animals
--------------------------------------------
Introduction:
name: gajendra singh ashok
class: viii ‘d’
roll no: 20
SCHOOL: KENDRIYA VIDYALAYA A.F.S
AVADI
INTRODUCTION:
MY SELF GAJENDRA SINGH ASHOK. I
AM THE STUDENT OF CLASS 8 ‘D’.
MY ROLL NUMBER IS 20. THIS MY
ASSIGNMENT ON THE TOPIC
PROTECTION OF ANIMALS
EXTINCTION AND ENDANGERED
ANIMALS
What is Extinction ?
1.Extinction occurs when the last existing
member of a given species dies
◦ In other words…there aren’t any more left!
2.It is a scientific certainty when there are
not any surviving individuals.
3.Functional Extinction
◦ Only a handful of individuals are left
ANIMALS WHICH ARE EXTINCT

Dodo:
 Extinct since mid to
late 17th century .
 Lived on one tiny
island
Passenger Pigeon
 Once most common
bird in North America.
 Flocks with more than
a billion birds took several
days to pass by.
 Last one died 1914
in a zoo.
Tasmanian Tiger

Last known specimen died in captivity in


1936
Dinosaurs

T-Rex Brachiosaurus
Meganeura
 Giant dragonfly with a 2.5ft wingspan
Wooly Mammoth
 About the size of an elephant, but with fur 3ft long
Sabre-toothed Tiger
Weighed up to 880 lbs (Lions weigh 550lbs)
Countless
more….
ENDANGERED
ANIMALS
Endangered Means There’s
Still Time

Endangered species are like fire alarms.


They tell us about problems in our home
we call Earth.
If we listen to their alarm calls, they could
help us improve our lives and the health
of our planet.
.Endangered
A species of plant or animal that is in
immediate danger of becoming extinct
and needs protection to survive.
Threatened
A species is likely to become endangered
if it is not protected
Passenger Pigeon – Now
Extinct
Dusky Seaside Sparrow

Last of these
birds died in
1987
Sparrows lost
their homes as
marshes were
destroyed
Endangered Means
There’s Still Time

An endangered
species is one
that is getting
close to
extinction.
Black Rhino
of Africa
Endangered Means
There’s Still Time
Gray wolves are also
endangered in most of the lower
48 states.
Endangered Means
There’s Still Time
A threatened
species is just
a step behind,
and may soon
become
endangered if
we don't help.
Endangered Means
There’s Still Time

African
Elephant

Poachers cut off their ivory tusks


to make carvings and sell them for
money.
Endangered Means
There’s Still Time

Itis because of habitat loss that


spotted owls are threatened.
Endangered Means
There’s Still Time

The spotted owl is our fire alarm to


the problem of over-cutting our
forests.
Endangered Means
There’s Still Time

It is also because of habitat loss


that whooping cranes are
endangered.
Endangered Means
There’s Still Time

Whooping cranes need wetlands


for food and protection.
Endangered Means
There’s Still Time

There are two reasons why


tigers are endangered, habitat
loss and illegal killing.
Endangered Means
There’s Still Time

Certain human activities are also


the main problem facing the
endangered manatee, or sea cow.
Endangered Means
There’s Still Time

Sometimes speed boats run over


the manatees.
Endangered Means
There’s Still Time

Not all endangered species are


mammals and birds we are
familiar with.
Extinction Is Forever
Extinction Is Forever

 Passenger pigeon was hunted to extinction by


1900 when a young boy in Ohio killed the last in
the wild

 In 1813, John James Aududon saw a huge flock


that took 3 days to pass and was so dense it
darkened the sky

 Many uses from food to feathered pillows; hunted;


loss of habitat led to extinction

 Commercial hunters used a “Stool Pigeon”;


capture one alive, sew its eyes shut and tie it to a
stool – it’s bird friends came to join him and were
killed or trapped in nets; hunting had become such
big business that a professional trapper made
$60,000 by killing 3 million birds

 Extinction is forever!
Extinction
In time, all species become extinct:

 Background Extinction: continuous low level of extinction

 Extinction Rate: % of species lost per year or 0.0001% before man became involved

 Mass Extinction: 5 mass extinctions – 50-95% of species were lost; but afterwards,
biodiversity returned; causes include climate change, volcanoes or asteroids; man 6th?

 Levels of Species Extinction:

◦ Local Extinction: no longer found in an area but is found elsewhere


◦ Ecological Extinction: only a few members left and it can no longer play an
ecological role in the community it is found
◦ Biological Extinction: no longer found on Earth; forever and represents an
irreversible loss of the organism
Figure 25.15
1,100

25 1,000

900

20 800
(families per million years):
Total extinction rate

700

Number of families:
15 600

500

10 400

300

5 200

100

0 0
Era Paleozoic Mesozoic Cenozoic
D P Q
Period E O S C Tr J C P N
542 488 444 416 359 299 251 200 145 65.5 0
Estimates of Extinction

 Conservative Estimates of Extinction:

◦ 0.01-1.0% which is 100-1000x the background rate before man existed 150,000
years ago

◦ Assuming a rate of 0.1% we are losing 5000 species a year if there are 5 mil
species; 14,000 if 14 mil

◦ Others estimate we can lose 25% of current animal and plant species by 2050; 50%
by 2100

 Extinction Rates are increasing:

◦ Growth of human population will increase this loss


◦ Rates are higher where there are more endangered species
◦ Tropical forests and coral reefs, wetlands and estuaries—sites of new species—
being destroyed
Animal Species Prematurely Extinct Due
to Human Activities
Classification of Species

 Species that are headed for biological extinction are classified as:

 Endangered Species:
◦ Few individual survivors that the species can become extinct over all or part of its
natural range (area found)

 Threatened Species:
◦ Vulnerable species
◦ Still abundant in its natural range but because of its numbers may become
endangered in the near future

 In 2007, the Red List included 16,306 plants and animals in danger of extinction; 60%
higher than 1995; may greatly underestimate the number as many species have not
been classified
Endangered
Species
Percentage of Various Species
Threatened with Premature Extinction
If Species Become Extinct?
 Instrumental value: usefulness to us in providing many of the ecological and
economical services
◦ Use Value: benefits all from economic goods to science
 Ecotourism: wildlife tourism: generates between 950,000 to $1.8 mil per minute
in tourist expenditures worldwide; male lion living to age 7 generates $515,000 in
tourist dollars but only $1000 if killed for its skin
 Genetic Information: loss increases our reliance of small number of crop plants
or animals
◦ Nonuse Value
 Existence Value: knowing its there even if we never see them
 Aesthetic Value: appreciate it for its beauty
 Bequest Value: pay to protect for future generations

 Ecological Value: species are a vital component of key ecosystem functions of energy
flow, nutrient recycling and population control

Protecting species from premature extinction and their vital habitats from premature
environmental degradation, we are helping to sustain our own health and well
being.
Endangered Scarlet Macaw is a Source
of Beauty and Pleasure
Territorial Range of Animals
The Ten Most Threatened Song Birds
in the United States
REASONS OF EXTINCTION
Habitat loss
Unregulated or illegal killing or collection
Pesticides, pollution
Competition with other species
Disease
Predation
Habitat loss
Habitat loss means loss of their place where they
live(Their habitat) due to human & natural
activites. Forests are cutter down by humans for
constructing building, roads etc. Because of
cutting forest animals have no place to live and
they don’t have food to eat. That’s why they are
dyeing .
Unregulated or illegal killing
or collection
Animals are killed by hunters and poachers , to
take out some things like tigers are killed for
their fur, elephant for their tusks, rhinoceros for
their horn, bear for their skin etc.
Pesticides, pollution
People are burning some toxic things. They are
throwing garbage and unwanted toxic substance
in the river. And because of this the air and water
is polluting. Animals inhale the polluted air and
some disease are caused due to inhaling the
polluted air. Animals drink the toxic river water
and also because of this their health is becoming
bad. And they are dying
Competition with other animals
Animals expand their area by fighting each
other in this some animals dies.
So these are some
reason of extinction of
endangered animals .

Few more reasons………


MEASURES FOR PROTECTION
 For protecting animals national parks, tiger
reserve, wild life centuries etc. Some of the
national parks are Gir which is in Gujarat, Buxar
in Bihar etc. forest rangers are appoint to take
care of the animals. And to give the daily
progress report of the animals national parks,
tiger reserve, wild life centuries etc. These
parks helps in protecting the endangered
animals.
Conclusion:
 Animals are very important in human live
because they give us some things which
we need to survive like milk, dung which
is used in fields as manure to give
nutrients to plants which gives us food,
wool and cow dung which is used as a fuel
etc. So we should not kill animals for
their skin, tusk or any thing because they
are the only which us for our survival.
Animals are our best
friend we should not
kill them.

thank you……….