Sei sulla pagina 1di 83

`  

 

p  
     

 

y ©          


            
           

 various combinations of gravity and


horizontal loading
y ©         
         

               
              
       

  
  

y ©            
        
y !  
y " 
y "     
y #      
y $    
y      
 
y   %      
u    
  

`     


y ! &            


       
    
    

  weight per unit floor area
y ©             
  
            
          
     
 
y &   '(  
      
            


             )  p   


     
`     


y è     '(  


 
          
   nonlinearly   
y è   *(  
       
     
 
   
    


è

   


y             


   
y "   office buildings       
          
       +    
         
    
  around the perimeter   
 
   around the elevator, stair and
service shafts
è

   

y ©       ,     
             
     
y ©         
 
 
           
     ©       

    typical storey height in an
office building to be 3.5m or more
G
      
è

   


y !  residential building or hotel    


     
 
   
   
 
y ©    continuously vertical columns and walls
can be distributed over the plan to form, or fit
within, the partitioning
y ©          
     
               

   
            
  
           
      
G
   
 
è

   

y u               
                
  
y ©     
    
    
      -     approximately 2.7 m
y  ( 
           

 
      ( 
 
G 

   

y u          &   



    
y © 
  one or more individually acting
vertical cantilevers          
            
 
 horizontal in-plane rigidity of the floor slabs
y u           

 -           
                 
         
avoiding the possibility of
net tension         uplift
   
  

y          
 high strength-to-weight ratio   
  
          
y     
     
           -  
   
y ) .    %        
      
     
   
  


y !               


y #            

-              
  
y ©
            rigid frame
action of concrete construction to resist
horizontal loading
y ©   
     %    
           '/ (
 
y        p    
      
y è      &  0(  0*  
  
      
 
y ©             
     `           
     -   storeys

 
  `  
y & è  
y è  
y !  è  
y è$  è   
y  u  
y uè  
y è ©  
y 1 &   
y     
y p   
y   
y 
  
Œ è   
y ©           

diagonal  
y          
       
               
y 2  
      
steel system  
     
      
y             
                 
 
    
Œ è 
Œ è 
Œ è   
y  .       
 

        
-          

  
y ) .
y !       
       
y )          
  
  è   
y p           
moment-
resistant    
y ©               
                
    
y  . !          
  
     
y ) . !  
 3  / 
     
economic only for buildings up to about 25 storeys
  0*  
    
    

      
      
     
  è 
  è   

y ! 
   p       

p  
y          "    
        

y 2
       
    
y egative moments        
           
    
      

   
  è   

 è   
y "            4(
 
     
  
y p        p       
  
  - -  - -  
   
y u                
infill behaves effectively as a strut along its
compression diagonal to brace the frame
y &              
   
      
  
     

 è   

 è   
y © complex interactive behaviour of the infill in
the frame   rather random quality of masonry
         
    
       
y o method of analyzing infilled frames for design
        
y &   fear of the unwitting removal of
bracing infills         
         
 
supplementary to the rigid-frame     
 
è G 
è   
y ©           uniform
slabs of 2-2 cm thickness     

    
y © 
     
p   
   
         un-complicated
formwork              
           
y              
          lateral resistance
depends on the flexural stiffness of the components
and their connections        
      
©   
©  
è G 
è   
y ppropriate for apartment and hotel construction
                 

   
   
y ©          
  5                
      '0 
y &      
       
      economical up to 25
storeys
y u  p            
  
       
  (             

 u  
y p     
      
 
  architecturally as partitions and structurally to
carry gravity and lateral loading
y M 
high in-plane stiffness and strength -  
 
     
y      
        
   
y             
            
          
y "     
      
    economical up to 35 storeys
 u  
u      
            


   ! "#     $!%##      
   "&'( 
    
 u  
y !               
 restrict planning         
  
y u               
floor-by-floor repetitive planning allows the walls
to be vertically continuous    
 
  
          ,
    
y !              
              
           

    

 
 u  
y !   
          

    
    lateral load tensile
stresses are suppressed by the gravity load
stresses ©           

      
y            perform
well in earthquakes    ductility
               
 u  
y ©wo or more shear walls in the same plane   
               
    

y ©            
            
 
composite cantilever       
     
y            
      
              
 u  
 u  
y p      residential construction where
lateral-load resistant cross walls    
           
   ,          
 
y        
   
      
 occasionally been
constructed of heavy steel plate in the style of
massive vertical plate or box girders    
  
y ©
           
 

           


uè   
y u              
                
               
              

   
    
y                 

 
             
 
y © interacting wall-frame combination   
    4 to 6  
    
 
         
uè   
uè   

y            


 
6 7    shear in the frame can be
made approximately uniform over the height
            
y        usually perceived as
a concrete structural form     
                
             
  
y ©               

           


è ©   
y ©            

 
 "      §tubeµ around the
perimeter of the building
y ©       
     0 + ,
      
     
y              

     ,           


y u                
         6 7   
                
   6  7
è ©   
y ©          p    
         4 to more than
 storeys
y © 
repetitive pattern        
prefabrication in steel     rapidly
moving gang forms       -  
  
y "             
      
   
     
è © 
© 
©  `    
y ©           
     67           
     
y ©       
     

   
y !        
   
               
  
  
© 
© 
Œ
©   

y     Ôears ©ower in hicago + 


      
y ©  ©        
           
        6 7  
y !  ©     -  
         
           
  
Œ
© 
 © 
Œ ©   
y    
     
    
  
               
          ,      
diagonal bracing       
y èirst used in a steel structure in 6, in hicago·s
John `ancock Building and in R structure in 5,
in ewYork·s 7©hird venue Building
y !              
             
  
         
      
   
   
    
  () 
`
 Π

 (%*#© 
Π

*  Π  
y p             
       horizontal cantilever
§outriggerµ trusses or girders connecting the
core to the outer columns
y u          
 vertical
plane rotations of the core are restrained by the
outriggers through tension in the windward
columns and compression in the leeward
columns.
*  Π  
y ©         

    augmenting the lateral stiffness of the


building and reducing the lateral deflections and
moments in the core
y !                -
      
     
y      4 to 7 storeys high  

            
 
*     
*     
  
 
  

y p   central core, or cores, with horizontal


cantilevers at roof level, to which vertical hangers
          
y © floor slabs are suspended    
y  . $ 
       
          ground storey can be
entirely free of major vertical members   

                

         


      
                
 
  
+ 
 
 

©    
  
   
y  single core to carry the entire gravity and
horizontal loading.
y !              
  
     !         , 
                
                
       
     
y  . 
      column-
free perimeter at the ground level       
       
   
  
y ©  
   
   
   
 3D triangulated frame + 
    
   +    
  
     
   
 
y 
    
    
           
y ©he 76-storey `ong Kong bank of hina Building is
a classic example
   
   
%, `
-

 
Π

 
  
`   
y       6   7   

non-regular in shape    
        
  
y ombinations of two or more of the basic structural
forms              

              



  
           
      
     
            
y u  ready availability of powerful computers
and highly efficient structural analysis programs 
     
      
  
    

`   
`   
è  
è  . 
 
  
y 1 
    
y 1 
   
y 1 
    
y © 
 
y © 
 
y u   
y © 
 
è  .   

y 1 
  

y © 
  

y © 
  

y p         
 
Π/0  G /

p  

Π/0     (


y 505   
y '3(  
y ©      3((((
   
y " .   
      
    
   
©1
©
y p  & ) ©    #  $      
      
      " #
y p   "   ©  !  
y 2   p      8  M  9 
  :      ; &  &  
  ;    )    <
©0 

y )               


            
 
    !    
y ©he tower massing is organized around a central
core with three wings. Each wing consists of four
bays. t every seventh floor, one outer bay peels
away as the structure spirals into the sky.
y - 
        
   =    & )    
       
 
y ©      
         
     high
performance concrete
from the foundation
level to level 56  
     structural
steel braced frame from
level 56 to the pinnacle.
   
wateral woad Resisting Ôystem

y ©          


  
high
performance, reinforced concrete ductile core
walls -                
   series of reinforced concrete shear wall
panels
y ©    
 -   '4((  *(( 
y ©     

-       
5((  ''((             
-      
  
y )        -     
   -             
   
 
y ©      -    

 
steel shear plates, or structural steel built-up I-
shaped beams, with shear studs embedded  
      © -    

 
      - 
y        reinforced concrete core
wall   
      -  
              
y ©       
     
diagonal structural steel bracing system at level
56
è è 
 
y ©            
  ©  
  0((  4(( two-way reinforced
concrete flat plate slabs spanning approximately  m
                 
y ©     
         
   00*  0*(  
      
  
 
y ©