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Q/C Tool

“Brainstorming”
What is Brainstorming ?
Brainstorming is a group technique for
generating new and useful ideas. It uses a
few simple rules for discussion on a
subject matter that contributes to originality
and innovation.
Brainstorming is a best technique and used
for idea generation by shop floor personnel,
Managers, Politicians etc.
It is used effectively and frequently at
various stages of problem solving.
Mr. Alex Osborn of USA developed this
technique in 1950s to solve advertising and
marketing problems.
Now its use has spread and become
popular in other application including
quality problem solving.
Creativity thinking and logical thinking of
human being is used in brainstorming.
Logical thinking : Logical thinking idea was
developed by Socrates. It can help us to
develop ideas in a systematic way.
Creativity thinking : Creativity thinking idea
was developed by T.A. Edison. It is original
and cannot be confined to any system or
controlled by normal rules.
Both thinking: For effective functioning, we
have to make use of both i.e. Creative as
well as Logical processes (Sherlock
Holmes).
Brainstorming helps to make use of
creative abilities of people in group and
sometimes by individuals themselves in an
effective manner.
Key Elements concerning Human Creative
Ability. (J.P. Guilford’s Research Findings)
Mr. J.P. Guilford who conducted research
on the creative behavior, identified five key
elements concerning human ability to be
creative. They are as follows :
1. Fluency 2. Flexibility
3. Originality 4. Awareness and
5. Drive
1. Fluency : Capability of producing maximum
ideas within a given time. It is measured by
quantity. In brainstorming quantity is more
important than quality.
2. Flexibility : Ability of the mind to move from
one aspect /area to another quickly. In a group
people think divergently. When we listen to
others, it opens up new avenues for our
thinking. It is called hitch-hiking process.
Thinking power of an individual either lies in
his memory, perception about a situation,
creativity or imagination etc. Flexibility is
measured by the number of categories of ideas
generated.
3. Originality : This is the ability of thinking to
identify uncommon, innovative or new ideas.
Normally new idea does not come in large
numbers. But even one original idea can lead
to a lot of benefits. Regular brainstorming
helps to bring out originality in people.
4. Awareness : Ability to look ahead into future.
Awareness helps to prepare oneself or a group
to face challenges and succeed. This benefit
can be got through regular brainstorming.
5. Drive : This is a willingness to participate and
contribute to achieve the end goal without the
fear of failure.
Types of Brainstorming
a. Free Wheeling or Unstructured
No hold, no bar system. No limit on
number of ideas at a time. It is
spontaneous and stimulates the
creativity of the individual.
b. Slip Method
When you need the involvement of a
large groups such method is used.
c. Round Robin or Structured
Quality Circle uses this system.
Guidelines for conducting brainstorming
in a structured manner.
1. Keep the participants, preferably
between six to ten.
2. Make it very clear to all the participants
on what subject the Brainstorming is
done.
3. Give required time for incubation.
4. Enter the points on a Black Board, Flip
Chart or in a Transparency for all to see.
5. Explain the guidelines.
6. One idea only at a time.
7. Contribution in turn.
8. You may pass.
9. Clarify the point but don’t explain the
ideas.
10. No criticism. Encourage them to do
‘hitch hiking’.
11. If session looses grip, have a break or
change.
12.To bring creativity use of five Ws and
one H (Who, Where, What, Who, Why and
How) appropriately.
13. Get maximum number of ideas.
14. Guests are welcome but will abide by
the rules.
15. Clarify each contribution.
16. Agree on a evaluation criteria.
Q/C Tool

“Flow Diagram”
What is Flow Diagram ?
Flow Diagram is a graphical or a pictorial
way to depict a process.
With the help of a Flow Diagram we can
show process sequence.
It is can be used to dissect a process for
better understanding and analyzing.
It can also be used for replanning or
making a change.
Flow diagram is a powerful tool which helps
to do a through analysis.
Types of Flow Diagram

There are three types of Flow Diagram:


a) High Level Flow Diagram
b) Matrix Flow diagram and
c) Detailed Flow Diagram
1. High level Flow Diagram

This is making the diagram of the


total process in a broad way.

User sends Inspected User


indent obtains

Quotation Material
obtained received

Material Material
ordered made
2. Matrix Flow diagram
USER PURCHASE MANUFACT STORES INSPECTION
URER

User sends Quotation


indent obtained

Material Material Material


Inspected
ordered made received

User
obtains

Material procurement process is involved with various


departments and agencies. Organizations have departmental
entities hence many times in a process it is necessary to know
about the agencies involved. Hence the same flow diagram can
be drawn in a Matrix format as shown here.
3. Detailed Flow diagram
Start Raise Place
Indent order

Material Material
Indent
needed Made
Received

Material
Material No Received
database Is it OK Return for
correction
Inspection
Is it No Yes
there Send
enquiry No
Yes Is it OK Return to
Supplier
Send
Requisition
Quotati No
on OK Take as
Material stock
obtained Yes

Stop Put in
Database
Detailed Flow diagram uses certain symbols.

1. Terminal Symbol
2. Activity Symbol
3. Decision Symbol
4. Document Symbol
5. Data Base Symbol
6. Flow Lines
7. Connector
Description of Symbol

1. Terminal Symbol
It is a rounded rectangle indicating the
beginning and end of a process or Flow
diagram. The words used at the
beginning is “Start” and ending is
“End”.
2. Activity Symbol
It is a rectangle in which a brief
description of an activity involved at
that step is mentioned”.
3. Decision Symbol
It is a ‘diamond’, used to depict a
decision point from which a process
branches into two or more paths.

4. Document Symbol
It is used to depict a document
pertaining to the process.
5. Data Base Symbol
This indicates electronically stored
information which pertain to the process

6. Flow Lines
They are basically arrow head used to
indicate the direction of the process
flow, from a decision symbol to two or
more different paths. Flow lines help
you to find out the continuity not only
for the entire process flow but also the
path of each rework loop.
7. Connector
Sometimes it may not be possible that the
entire process has a flow diagram in a
single sheet.
Some areas may have to be drawn in a
separate sheet.
Connector symbol which is a small circle
helps to show continuity of the process. A
letter or a number can be we be written in
that for finding out the continuity.
Q/C Tool

“Data Collection”
What is Data Collection ?

Data Collection is collection of required


‘information’ in figures for statistical
analysis of a problem. This provides a
sound basis for decision making and
corrective action.
It is used effectively and frequently at
various stages of problem solving.
Types of Data
Generally data are of two type:
a) Measurement data or variable data and
b) Attribute data.
a) Measurement data or Variable data
Basic observation obtained by using an
instrument or measuring process.
Example: taking data on weight,
diameter, % carbon, reaction time etc.
These data are called continuous
variable.
b) Attribute data:
Data obtained by classification into two or
more categories. For example number
rejected, number passed, Data obtained by
count of defects, count of occurrences
(number of accidents) etc.
These data are in whole numbers and are
called discontinuous or discrete variables.
Format for Collection of Data
Check Sheet
An easy and effective way of collecting data
is by using well designed formats.
A check sheet is a simple data recording
form specially designed so that data can be
interpreted readily from the sheet itself.
Items to be checked are preprinted so that
recording becomes very easy.
A sample of check sheet
KILN TEMPERATURE

CHECKED BY: DT:

TAKE READING OF TEMPERATURE NEAREST TO DEGREE.

Time Temp. (deg. Time Temp. (deg.


Cent.) Cen.)
Types of Check-sheet
a. Process control information checks.
b. Product quality assurance checks.
c. Defective item checks.
d. Defective location checks.
e. Defective cause checks.
f. Process variation distribution checks
and
g. Others.
Benefits of data collection
• Right decision can be made.
• Errors due to subjective feeling or
personal bias are avoided.
• Agreement on decisions necessary rather
than different or subjective opinion.
• Measurement understandable to all.
• Assessments of magnitude of
improvements.
• Discovery of causes affecting quality and
productivity.
Q/C Tool

“Cause and Effect Diagram”


What is a Cause and Effect Diagram ?
Any defect in a component, a product or
service could be due to one or more
causes. To find out the relationship
between the causes and effect, a diagram
is drawn systematically by mapping out all
the probable causes influencing the effect.
This is called a Cause and Effect Diagram.
This is also called Fish Bone diagram or
Ishikawa Diagram. A Cause and Effect
diagram gives a visual representation of
factors that might contribute to an
observed effect.
Types of Cause and
Effect Diagram

1. Dispersion analysis type


2. Production process classification type.
3. Cause enumeration type
STEP- 5 Identification of Causes
Cause & Effect diagram

Machine Man
1
Hose pipe Improper attention
3 on the unit
damage

Faulty operation
4 Vessel leakage Break
2 Down in
Pneumatic
5 Outlet pipe line Maintaining improper
jam with material air pressure in the
system
7 vessel
Erosion of inside
6 High pressure for
surface of vessel
and pipe line material conveying
(exist. Pre. 6 bar)

Material 8 Method
STEP- 5 Finding out sub-sub-sub Causes
Why -Why analysis to search out and organize
all possible factors

Man
Faulty 2
One
operation
operator in-
Doing
charge of
multiple job different Lack of training
1 units

Improper
attention
on the unit
New
Inadequate Operator
knowledge on Lack of Break
operating system training
Down in
Pneumatic
system
STEP- 5
Machine
Erosion
Gradual weak of vessel 5
of body body
3 Vessel leakage
Excess
Metal pipe pressure
line leakage Gradual
Continuous weak of
4 running body
Hosepipe
damage
Process Continuous
Frequent supply of high Erosion
requirement of body
rubbing on pressure into
ground during Conveying the vessel
operation material with (Pre. 6 bar)
high pressure
Improper (Pre. 6 bar) Break
length of Faulty Down in
pipe design Pneumatic
system
STEP- 5

Material
6
7
Outlet pipe Erosion of inside
line jam with surface of vessel
material and pipe line
Urgent
Improper requirement Using
flow of of production abrasive raw
material
material
Ignorance of
Operator (Use Process
of 1 Ton Bag requirement
Charging wet Material)
material
Break
Down in
Pneumatic
system
STEP- 5

Method
High pressure
8 9 for material
conveying
Maintaining
(pre. 6 bar)
improper air
pressure in
the Vessel Improper
pressure
Using same setting
pressure for Design
(i) instruments of M/c.
Design Low height of
operation and
Using air of M/c. corresponding
(ii) material
pressure silos (30 feet)
conveying
from same
pipe line. Break
Down in
Pneumatic
system
Production process
classification type.

This system follows the process and all


things that may affect at various stages
of processing. Here the process flow is
followed. Let us apply this system to
the same problem “Defeat in the
Cricket Test Match”.
DEFEAT IN
Practice & Strategic Application CRICKET
Selection Conditioning Planning TEST
MATCH
Cause Enumeration Type C&E Diagram

In this all possible causes are simply


listed. Causes must be organized
subsequently in accordance with the
product quality.
Q/C Tool

“Pareto Diagram”
What is Pareto Diagram ?
Pareto Diagram is a technique of arranging
data according to priority or importance
and using it into a problem solving frame
work.
This helps to find out the “VITAL FEW”
from the “USEFUL MANY” for problem
selection.
It is often said that one who makes noise
always gets the attention. This is the fact
of life. By this the most important aspect
gets neglected.
When it comes to problem solving, we
cannot go by this perception but have to
rely upon data and facts.
As said earlier Pareto analysis or Pareto
Diagram is a technique of arranging data
according to priority or importance and
using it into a problem solving frame
work.
This helps to find out the “VITAL FEW”
from the “USEFUL MANY” for problem
selection. (Useful Many earlier known as
TRIVIAL MANY)
We observe that most of our problems
arise from a few of the sources.
For example :
i) Only two companies (20 %) account for
sale of 0.5 million cards (80 %).
ii) It is few children in a class who cause
maximum nuisance.
The Italian economist Vilfredo Pareto
(1848 – 1923), during his study of
distribution of wealth in his country
observed that 80% to 90% of Italy’s wealth
lay in the hands of 10% to 20% of the
population.
The U.S. Economist M.G. Lorenz
presented this distribution in a theoretical
curve in 1907. This curve is called
Lorenz’s curve of concentration.
However it was Dr. J.M. Juran in mind
1920s who observed that the quality
defects are unequal in frequency i.e. few
defects accounted for bulk of the
rejections or defectives.
He learnt further on this phenomenon
while working as a consultant for General
Motors (GM) in 1930.
Mr. Merk Hale showed Dr. J.M. Juran how
executives salary in GM’s are in line with
Pareto’s theory.
M.C. Lorenz developed a form of
cumulative curve to depict the distribution
of wealth.
Juran was the first to identify the
phenomenon of ‘the vital few, useful
many’, as a “universal’ principle
applicable to many fields.
Juran applied the name ‘Pareto Principle’
to this universal phenomenon of “Vital
few, useful many” and applied the Lorenz
curve to depict it in universal graph form.
STEP- 6
Finding out the Root Causes
Validation of Causes
Observation done on notch damage against each possible causes
From : Oct. 09 to Mar. 10
No Possible Causes Observation done on 137 No. of Valid
cases during 6 months damage cause
1 Improper alignment of pin 5 times found problem. 5 Yes
cylinder.
2 Improper setting of notch with 14 times found problem. 14 Yes
the bottom piston.
3 Exertion of excess pressure 12 times found problem. 12 Yes
on notch portion.
4a Continuous movement of pin 56 times found problem. 56 Yes
through the notch.
5a Making of bricks with abrasive 6 times found problem. 6 Yes
material.
6 Improper hardness of notch. 12 times found problem. 16 Yes
7a Irregular cleaning of notch. 21 times found problem. 21 Yes
8 Brittle at the sharp corner. 7 times found problem. 7 Yes

Page-34
STEP- 6
Identifying Main Causes
Collection of Data
From : Oct. 09 to Mar. 10

Cause Possible Causes No. of pcs


No damaged
4a Continuous movement of pin through the notch. 56
7a Irregular cleaning of notch. 21
6 Improper hardness of notch. 16
2 Improper setting of notch with the bottom piston. 14
3 Exertion of excess pressure on notch portion. 12
8 Brittle at the sharp corner. 7
5a Making of bricks with abrasive material. 6
1 Improper alignment of pin cylinder. 5
Total 137

Page-34
STEP-6

Tabulation of Data
Cause No. Damage of %age Cumulative
Notch (in pcs.) %age
4a 56 41 41
7a 21 15 56
6 16 12 68
2 14 10 78
3 12 9 87
8 7 5 92
5a & 1 11 8 100
(others)
Total 137 100
STEP-6 Pareto Diagram
(%)
137.0 92 % 100
87%
No. of Notches damaged 123.7
78 %
90
109.6 80
68 %
95.9 70
82.2 56 % 60
68.5 USEFUL MANY 50
41%
54.8 40
VITAL FEW
41.1 30
15 %
27.4 12 % 10 % 20
13.7
9% 5% 8% 10
0 0
4a 7a 6 2 3 8a Others
Cause no.

4a, 7a & 6 contributes 68 % Problem. So Q.C. Team


considers the above causes as Root Causes.

Pareto Diagram for “Finding Root Causes”.


STEP- 6

Selected Root Causes

Cause Root Causes


No
4a Continuous movement of pin
through the notch.
7a Irregular cleaning of notch.
6 Improper hardness of notch.

Page-38
Pareto Graph is a
Compound Graph.
Because this is made by
combination of bar graph
and line graph.

Page-38
Q/C Tool

“Stratification”
What is Stratification ?

Stratification is the process of


separation of data into categories.
It is normally done for identifying the
categories contributing to the problem
tackled.
Stratification is the process to classify
large amount of data to find out whether
we can get indication of problem point.