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M.Tech

Generation of Microwave Signals:

Microwave Tubes – klystron, reflex klystron, magnetron and

TWT.

diodes, PIN, LSA, Schottky barrier diode.

Microwave Tubes:

Tubes generate and amplify high levels of microwave power

more cheaply than solid state devices.

Conventional tubes can be modified for low capacitance but

specialized microwave tubes are also used.

Microwave Tubes:

Microwave tubes operates at frequencies from 300MHz to

300GHz with output ranges from mW to few hundreds of

Watts.

The Operating principle of microwave tubes are velocity

modulation concept.

The velocity modulation concept is used to prevent the

problems caused due to transit time effects which lies in

conventional vacuum tubes.

A large transit time is effectively utilized to convert the d.c.

power to RF power in microwave tubes.

Introduction:

In conventional Vacuum Tubes, the modulation of electron

beam can be done by altering the number of electrons.

Also called Velocity-modulated tubes.

Here the electron beam is formed by varying the velocity of

electrons due to this bunching of electrons occurs.

Limitations of Vacuum tubes over semiconductors are to be

discussed.

Brief discussion of Vacuum tubes and solid state devices

Vacuum tube Vs Solid state devices

Vacuum tubes are highly linear with out negative feedback.

Tolerant to high voltage spikes compared to semiconductors.

Highly independent of temperature which means Biasing

conditions won’t be critical.

Wider Dynamic Range(high operating voltages)

Miller effect is predominant i.e. device capacitances vary

with small signal voltages.

Tubes can be easily replaced by user.

But bulky and not portable.

Vacuum tube Vs Solid state devices

High power consumption. Heat sinks and fans are needed.

Glass tubes are fragile compared to metal transistors.

High cost compared to transistor equivalents.

High impedance devices which implies impedance matching

is tough.

On the other size side transistors less cost and rugged

compared to vacuum tubes, low power consumption, and

less matching circuits are needed.

But non linear behavior, distortions and device

capacitances(miller effect) and temperature effects are

disadvantages of solid sate devices.

Limitations of Conventional Tubes

At microwave frequencies above 1GHz, the conventional

tubes are less useful signal sources.

Effects of inter electrode capacitance.

Effects due lead inductances

Effects due to transit time

Limitations of gain-bandwidth product.

Lead-Inductance and Inter electrode

Capacitance Effects

At high frequencies 1GHz conventional vacuum tubes are

impaired by parasitic reactances because the circuit

capacitances between tube electrodes and the circuit

inductance of lead wire are too large for a microwave

resonant circuit.

Output efficiency is reduced by series overload of the input

circuit.

Lead-Inductance and Inter electrode

Capacitance Effects

Assumption that the inter electrode capacitances and cathode

inductance are only parasitic elements.

Contd..

inversely proportional to multiple powers of input frequency. Input

impedance small enough to make signal source short.

Contd..

Input admittance of pentode circuit

lead length and electrode area

Lead Inductance Effect

The lead inductance that appears at the connecting leads of the

vacuum tube elements are the limiting factor at high frequencies.

Inductance at cathode, inductance at the plate and the inductance

at the grid.

They form tuned circuit by combining with capacitance which

produce the parasitic oscillations.

They create an input impedance matching problem due to

increase in inductive reactance.

Most of the input voltage drops across the inductance and

fractional part appears at the input terminals.

The effect of lead inductance is minimized by decreasing L, large

sized short leads without base pins and by increasing A.

Transit time effect:

Transit time causes the phase shift between the plate current and

the grid voltage resulting in reducing of efficiency.

The electron transit angle is defined as

period. If frequency is increased by 100GHz with same transit

time of 1nsec then the transit time is 100 times time period.

Transit time effect:

At microwave frequencies the transit time is large compared to the

period of microwave signal, and the potential between the cathode

and grid may be from 10 to 100 times during electron transit.

The grid potential during the negative half cycle thus removes

energy that was given in the positive half cycle.

The electrons may oscillate back and forth in some cases they

return to cathode. The overall efficiency reduced in the vacuum

tubes.

At microwave frequencies the transit angle is not negligible, and

the transadmittance becomes a complex number with a relatively

small magnitude. This situation indicates that the output is

decreased.

the transit-angle effect can be minimized by first accelerating the

electron beam with a very high de voltage and then velocity-

modulating it.

Gain-Bandwidth product Limitation:

In vacuum tubes the maximum gain is generally achieved by

resonating the output circuit.

Gain-Bandwidth product Limitation:

Maximum voltage gain at resonance

Contd…

The gain bandwidth product of the circuit is

frequency.

High gain is achieved by the expense of narrowing the

bandwidth(applicable to resonant circuits only).

In microwave either reentrant cavities or slow wave

structures are used to obtain possible high gain over broad

bandwidth.

MICROWAVE TUBES:

The microwave tubes are generally classified into linear beam

tubes(O-type) and crossed field tubes(M-type).

In linear beam tubes, the electron beam is parallel to both

electric and magnetic fields.

In a linear beam tube a magnetic field whose axis coincides

with that of the electron beam is used to hold the beam

together as it travels the length of the tube.

In crossed-field tubes, the electron beam is perpendicular to

both electric and magnetic fields.

Reentrant Cavities:

The re-entrant cavities(also known as irregular shaped resonators)

are used in place of tuned circuits at microwave frequencies.

Below the microwave frequencies, the cavity resonator can be

represented by lumped-constant resonant circuit.

In order to maintain resonance at high operating frequency, the

values of inductance and capacitance are decreased to a minimum

by using a short wire.

The other advantage of reentrant cavity is ease of coupling and

recollecting of the signal from these devices.

The metallic boundaries are extended into interior of the cavity.

RE-Entrant Cavities:

The most commonly used re-entrant cavities is the co-axial

cavity.

(a) Coaxial cavity (b) Radial Cavity (c)Tunable Cavity (d) Toroidal Cavity

(e) Butter Fly Cavity

Reentrant Cavities:

In the coaxial cavity, the inductance as well as the resistance

losses is reduced, and the radiation losses are also prevented

shelf-shielding enclosures.

Using transmission line theory approximation the

characteristic impedance of the co-axial line is given by

Reentrant Cavities

The characteristic impedance of the coaxial line is given by

When two coaxial lines are shorted at both the ends and are

joined at the centre by a capacitor, then a structure formed

which is similar to a co-axial cavity. For each shorted coaxial

line the input impedance is given as

Reentrant Cavities

The inductance of the cavity is given by

the two short circuited coaxial lines which is in series has

same magnitude to that of capacitive reactance of the gap

Reentrant Cavities

The solution for above equation gives the resonant frequency

of a coaxial cavity.

Since the equation contains “tan” term, it has infinite number

of solutions with large number of frequencies. therefore

these type of reentrant cavity can support an infinite number

of resonant frequencies.

The balance of the electric stored energy appears in the gap,

for at resonance the magnetic and electric stored energies are

equal.

Radial Reentrant cavities:

The radial reentrant cavity is another commonly used

reentrant cavity resonator.

The inductance and capacitance of the reentrant cavity is

expressed by

Linear Beam Tubes(O TYPE)

Klystrons:

KLYSTRONS:

The Two cavity Klystron is widely used microwave amplifier

operated by the principle of velocity and current modulation.

All electrons injected from cathode arrive at first cavity with

uniform velocity and these electrons passes the gap of the first

cavity when zero signal voltages.

Positive half cycles of gap voltage undergo increase in velocity and

negative half cycles of gap voltage undergo decrease in velocity.

Due to this electron bunching occurs during their travel in drift

space. The variation of electron velocity in drift space is known as

velocity modulation.

The density of electrons in the second cavity gap varies cyclically

with time. The electron beam contains a.c. component and is

called current modulation.

KLYSTRONS:

The maximum bunching should occur in the mid way

between the second cavity grids during retarding phase.

Kinetic energy is transferred from electrons to the field of

the second cavity.

The electrons emerge from second cavity with retarded

velocity finally terminate at collector.

Characteristics of two cavity klystron amplifier

efficiency:40%

power output : average power (CW power) is up to 500KW

and pulsed power is up to 30MW at 10GHz

power gain: about 30dB

KLYSTRONS:

The cavity close to the cathode is known as buncher cavity or

input cavity, which velocity modulates the electron beam.

The other cavity is called catcher cavity or output cavity. It

catches energy from the bunched electron beam.

Assumptions made in analysis of two cavity klystron:

1. the electron beam is assumed to have a uniform density in

the cross section of the beam.

2. Space charge effects are negligible.

3. The magnitude of the microwave signal input is assumed to

be much smaller than the dc accelerating voltage.

Velocity Modulation Process:

When electrons are accelerated by high DC voltage V0 before

entering the buncher grids, their velocity is uniform

the gap voltage between the buncher grids appears as

either entering time t0 and exiting time t1 and the gap transit

angle θg is shown in previous figure.

Velocity Modulation Process:

The average transit time through the buncher gap distance d

is

Velocity Modulation Process:

The average gap transit angle can be expressed as

by

Let and

Velocity Modulation Process:

From the trigonometric identity [Cos(A-B) – Cos(A+B)] =

2 Sin A Sin B

cavity gap βi

between the electron beam and the buncher cavity i.e., the

velocity modulation of given microwave signal decreased

Velocity Modulation Process:

After the velocity modulation, the exit velocity from the

buncher gap is given by

Eqn(1)

Velocity Modulation Process:

We know that

Eqn(2)

Velocity Modulation Process:

Figure shows the beam coupling coefficient Vs gap transit

angle

Additive Automatic Klystron(AAK)

device

It works on the principle of automobile’s property of voltage

magnification. Based on Einstein’s principle of random motion.

The magnetic field together with electric field bypasses the voltage

generation(i.e. in the form of potential energy) and automatic

amplification occurs in current.

F(in dB) = O+*O-*l

F denotes the force on electron

O+ is the orbital motion of electron in clock wise direction

O- is the orbital motion of electron in anti clock wise direction.

l is the length of atom in axial direction.

Applications of Klystrons:

klystrons are used in picture tubes since the vacuum tube technology

exist in it.

Same principle used in refrigerators, space technology for amplification

purpose.

Bunching Process:

The velocity of electrons leaving the buncher cavity is

specified in eqn1&2. the electrons drift in the field-free space

between the two cavities.

The effect of velocity modulation produces bunching of

electron beam or current modulation.

The electrons that pass the buncher cavity at Vs = 0 travel

through with unchanged velocity V0 and become the

bunching center, those electrons that pass the buncher cavity

during the positive cycles of microwave input signal Vs travel

faster than the electrons that pass the gap Vs=0 and the

electrons that pass the buncher cavity during negative cycles

travels slower than electrons that pass the gap at Vs=0.

Bunching Process:

At a distance of ΔL along the beam from the buncher cavity,

the beam electrons have drifted into dense clusters.

electron accelaration

Bunching Process:

The distance from the buncher grid to the location of dense

electron bunching for the electron at tb is

Eqn (3)

Similarly, the distances for the electrons at ta and tc are

Eqn (4)

Eqn (5)

Bunching Process:

Substitute eqn(6) in eqn(4) and eqn(7) in eqn(5)

Eqn (8)

Eqn (9)

meet at the same distance ΔL is

Eqn (10)

Bunching process

And

Eqn (11)

Consequently

Eqn (12)

Eqn (13)

Make a note that the distance in above equation is not the one

for maximum bunching

Bunching Process:

The figure shows the distance – time plot or applegate

diagram

Bunching Process:

Since the drift region is field free, the transit time for an

electron to travel a distance of L is given by

Eqn (14)

Eqn (15)

electron transit cycles in the drift space, and

Bunching Process:

And X is defined as the bunching parameter of a klystron.

Eqn (17)

At the bunching gap a charge dQ0 passing through a time

interval dt0 is given by Eqn (18)

Where I0 is the dc current. From the principle of

conservation of charges this same amount of charge dQ0 also

passes the catcher at a later time interval dt2

Eqn (19)

current i2 is the current at the catcher gap.

Eqn (20)

Bunching Process:

Alternatively

Eqn (21)

and ωt2 – ( θ0 + θg/2) is the catcher cavity arrival angle.

Differentiation of eqn(20) w.r.t t0 results in

Eqn (22)

Eqn (23)

Bunching Process:

Figure shows catcher arrival angle versus buncher departure

angle

Bunching Process:

Figure shows beam current i2(t2) as a function of catcher

arrival angle in terms of bunching parameter X.

Bunching Process:

In terms of t2 the current is

Eqn (24)

+ ωT0 = ωt0 + θg + θ0 .

The beam current at the catcher cavity is a periodic

waveform of period 2π/ω about dc current. Therefore the

current i2 can be expanded in a fourier series

Eqn (25)

Bunching Process:

The series coefficients a0, an, bn are given by integrals

Eqn (26)

Eqn (27)

Eqn (28)

Bunching Process:

Using trigonometric functions

Eqn (29)

Eqn (30)

Bunching Process:

If the above series are substituted into the integrands of

equations (27) and (28), the integrals are evaluated term by

term and the series coefficients are

Eqn (31)

Bessel function of first kind

Bunching Process:

The beam current i2(t) as

Eqn (32)

cavity has a magnitude Eqn (33)

The fundamental component If has its maximum amplitude at

X = 1.841 Eqn (34)

The optimum distance L at which the maximum fundamental

component of current occurs is computed from Eqns

16,17,34.

Eqn (35)

Bunching Process:

Note that the distance given in eqn(13) is approximately 15%

less than distance in eqn(35).

The discrepancy is due to approximations considered as

specified and to the fact that the maximum fundamental

component of current will not coincide with the maximum

electron beam density along the beam because the harmonic

components exist in the beam.

Output Power and Beam Loading:

The maximum bunching should occur approximately midway

between the catcher grids.

The phase of the catcher gap voltage must be maintained in

such a way that the bunched electrons, as they pass through

the grids, encounter a retarding phase.

When the bunched electron beam passes through the

retarding phase, its kinetic energy is transferred to the field

of the catcher cavity.

When the electrons emerge from the grids, they have

reduced velocity and are finally collected by the collector.

The induced current in the catcher cavity:

The current induced by the electron beam in the walls of the

catcher cavity is directly proportional to the amplitude of the

microwave input voltage V1 , the fundamental component of

the induced microwave current in the catcher is given by

gap. If the buncher and catcher cavities are identical, then

βi = β0 . The fundamental component of the current induced

in the catcher cavity then has the magnitude

Contd..

Figure shows the output equivalent circuit

Rsho - the wall resistance of the catcher cavity.

RB - the beam loading resistance

RL - the external load resistance

Rsh - the effective shunt resistance

Contd..

The output power delivered to the catcher cavity and load is

catcher circuit, including the load and V2 is the fundamental

component of catcher gap voltage.

Efficiency of Klystron

The electronic efficiency of klystron is defined as the ratio of

output power to input power.

walls are included.

If the coupling is perfect, β0 = 1, the maximum beam

current approaches I2max = 2I0(0.582) and the voltage V2 is

equal to the V0. The maximum electronic efficiency is about

58%.

In practice, the electronic efficiency of a klystron amplifier is

in the range of 15 to 30%.

Efficiency of Klystron:

The efficiency is a function of catcher gap transit angle θg

Figure shows maximum efficiency of an klystron as a function

of catcher gap transit angle.

Mutual conductance of klystron:

The equivalent mutual conductance of klystron amplifier can

be defined as the ratio of induced output current to the input

voltage.

parameter X

conductance is

Mutual conductance of klystron:

The mutual conductance is not constant but decreases as

bunching parameter X increases.

Mutual conductance of klystron:

It can be seen from the curves that for a signal, the normalized

transconductance is maximum.

conductance is

Multi-cavity Klystron Amplifiers:

The typical power gain of two cavity klystron amplifier is

about 30dB. In order to achieve higher overall gain, one way

is to connect several two cavity tubes in cascade, feeding the

output of each of the tubes to the input of next one.

Extra cavities help to modulate the electron beam’s velocity

and increase the output energy. Hence intermediate cavities

are added between input and output cavities of a klystron

amplifier.

A four cavity klystron with 4 cavities, power gains of around

50dB can easily achieved. Since each intermediate cavity

increases the power gain by 15 to 20dB.

Multi cavity Klystron Amplifier:

Multi- cavity Klystron Amplifiers:

The intermediate cavities are kept at a distance of the

bunching parameter X of 1.8141, away from the previous

cavity, which acts as buncher cavities.

These buncher cavities pass the electron beam and induce a

higher RF voltage than the previous cavity. Due to this

velocity modulation increases. This increasing beam voltage

V0 could be used in subsequent cavities. Therefore more

output power can be achieved at the output cavity.

The output power delivered to the load in a two cavity

Klystron amplifier is given by

Multi- cavity Klystron Amplifiers:

When two cavity klystrons are discussed we assumed that

mutual repulsion of electrons are negligible i.e., space charge

effect is neglected. And it holds good since a small density of

electrons in the beam for low power amplifiers.

But in high power Klystron tubes the electron density is large

and forces of mutual repulsion of electrons must be

considered.

When electrons perturbate in the electron beam, the

electron density consists of dc part plus RF perturbation

caused by electron bunches.

The space charge forces with in the electron bunches vary

with size and shape of electron beam.

Multi- cavity Klystron Amplifiers:

In an infinitely wide beam the electric fields are constrained

to act only in axial direction.

In a finite beam the electric fields are radial as well as axial

with the result that the axial component is reduced in

comparison to the infinite beam.

With the reduced axial space charge force, the plasma

frequency is reduced and plasma wavelength is increased.

Let the charge density and velocity perturbations be

sinusoidal variations both in time and position. They are

Charge density

Velocity perturbation

Multi- cavity Klystron Amplifiers:

From the above equations

Multi- cavity Klystron Amplifiers:

The electron plasma frequency is the frequency at which the

electrons oscillate in the electron beam. This plasma

frequency applies to a beam of infinite diameter.

But practical beam of finite diameter are characterized by

plasma frequency less than ωp . This lower plasma frequency

is called reduced plasma frequency and designated by ωq .

The space charge reduction factor R is a function of beam

radius and ratio n of the beam tunnel radius to the beam

radius.

Multi- cavity Klystron Amplifiers:

The total charge density and electron velocity are given by

Multi- cavity Klystron Amplifiers:

The instantaneous convection beam current density at any

point in the beam is expressed as

equation is written as

Multi- cavity Klystron Amplifiers:

We know that

Since

Multi- cavity Klystron Amplifiers:

The beam current density and modulated velocity is

expressed as

smaller than unity therefore second term is neglected in the

above equation.

Multi- cavity Klystron Amplifiers:

The electrons leaving the input gap of klystron amplifier have

a velocity given at the exit grid by

exhibit simple harmonic motion, the velocity at the later

time t is given by

Multi- cavity Klystron Amplifiers:

Where ωp = plasma frequency, the current density equation

is given by

Multi- cavity Klystron Amplifiers:

If the two cavities of a two-cavity klystron amplifier are

assumed to be identical and are placed at a point where RF

convention current at the output cavity for a two cavity

Klystron

magnitudes of induced current and voltage in the output cavity

is equal to

Multi- cavity Klystron Amplifiers:

where β0 = βi is the beam coupling coefficient

Rshl = total shunt resistance of the output cavity in the two-

cavity klystron amplifier including the external load.

The output power delivered to the load in a two- cavity

Klystron amplifier is given by

expressed by

Multi- cavity Klystron Amplifiers:

The electronic efficiency of the two cavity Klystron amplifier is

available, most frequently used one is four.

The four cavities are assumed to be identical and they have same

unloaded Q and beam coupling coefficient βi = β0. The

intermediate are not externally loaded, but the input and

output cavities are matched to their transmission lines.

If V1 is the magnitude of the input cavity gap voltage, the

magnitude of RF convection current density injected into the

first intermediate cavity.

Multi- cavity Klystron Amplifiers:

This gap voltage of first intermediate cavity produces a

velocity modulation on the beam in the second intermediate

cavity.

The RF convection current in the second intermediate cavity

can be written as |V1 | replaced by |V2|

given by

Multi- cavity Klystron Amplifiers:

This voltage produces a velocity modulation again and is

converted into an RF convection current at the output cavity

for four-cavity Klystron

Klystron amplifier

Multi- cavity Klystron Amplifiers:

Where Rshl = total shunt resistance of the output cavity

including the external load

The multi-cavity klystrons are often operated with their

cavities stagger tuned so as to obtain a greater bandwidth at

some reduction in gain.

Reflex Klystrons:

If the fraction of output power is fed back to the input cavity and if

the loop gain has a magnitude of unity with a phase shift of multiple

2π, the klystron oscillate.

The reflex klystron has been the most used source of microwave

power in laboratory applications.

A reflex klystron consists of an electron gun, a cavity with a pair of

grids and a repeller plate as shown in the following diagram.

In this klystron, a single pair of grids does the functions of both the

buncher and the catcher grids.

The main difference between two cavity reflex klystron amplifier

and reflex klystron is that the output cavity is omitted in reflex

klystron and the repeller or reflector electrode, placed a very short

distance from the single cavity, replaces the collector electrode.

Reflex Klystrons:

diagram

Working:

The cathode emits electrons which are accelerated forward by an

accelerating grid with a positive voltage on it and focused into a

narrow beam.

The electrons pass through the cavity and undergo velocity

modulation, which produces electron bunching and the beam is

repelled back by a repeller plate kept at a negative potential with

respect to the cathode.

On return, the electron beam once again enters the same grids which

act as a buncher, therby the same pair of grids acts simultaneously as a

buncher for the forward moving electron and as a catcher for the

returning beam

Working:

The feedback necessary for electrical oscillations is developed by

reflecting the electron beam, the velocity modulated electron beam

does not actually reach the repeller plate, but is repelled back by the

negative voltage.

The point at which the electron beam is turned back can be varied by

adjusting the repeller voltage.

Thus the repeller voltage is so adjusted that complete bunching of the

electrons takes place at the catcher grids, the distance between the

repeller and the cavity is chosen such that the repeller electron

bunches will reach the cavity at proper time to be in synchronization.

Due to this, they deliver energy to the cavity, the result is the

oscillation at the cavity producing RF frequency

Apple gate diagram:

Apple gate diagram with gap voltage for a reflex klystron

Velocity modulation:

The analysis of reflex klystron is similar to the two cavity klystron

amplifier. The space charge effect on electron motion is

neglected. The electron entering the cavity gap from the cathode

at Z=0 and time t0 is assumed to have uniform velocity.

The same electron leave the gap at Z=d and time t1 with velocity

The force equation for one electron in repeller region is

Velocity modulation:

The force equation Used in z direction only

Velocity modulation:

at t = t1 and Z = d = K2 then

on the assumption that electron leaves the electron leaves the cavity gap at Z

= d and time t1 with velocity v(t1) and returns to the gap at Z = d and time t2

Velocity modulation:

where Is the round trip dc transit time of the

center of the bunch of the electron

Power output and efficiency:

In order for the electron beam to generate a maximum amount of

energy to the oscillation, the returning electron beam must cross the

cavity gap when the gap field is maximum retarding

A maximum amount of kinetic energy can be transferred from the

returning electrons to the cavity walls.

For maximum energy transfer, the round trip transit angle, referring

to the center of the bunch

Power output and efficiency:

The current modulation of the electron beam as it reenters the cavity

from the repeller region can determined in similar way as two cavity

klystron amplifier.

The bunching parameter XI of the reflex klystron oscillator has a

negative sign w.r.t bunching parameter X of two cavity klystron

amplifier.

The beam current injected into the cavity gap from the repeller region

flows in negative Z direction.

modulated electron beam

Power output and efficiency:

In which θg has neglected as compared to the θ0i . the magnitude of

fundamental component is

Power output and efficiency:

The electronic efficiency of reflex klystron is defined as

In the factor X!J1(X!) reaches the maximum value 1.25 at X!= 2.408

and J1(X!) = 0.52. in practice the mode n=2 has the most power

output

Power output and efficiency:

Figure X!J1(X!) versus X!

Power output and efficiency:

For a given beam voltage V0 the relationship between the repeller

voltage and cycle number n required for oscillations is found

the center repeller voltage can be determined in terms of central

frquency

The output power can be expressed in terms of repeller voltage Vr

Power output and efficiency:

When the frequency varies from center frequency and the repeller

voltage about the center voltage, the power output is varied

accordingly assuming a bell shape.

Electronic Admittance:

The induced current in phasor form as

The voltage across the gap at time t2 can also be in phasor form

klystron

admittance is a function of dc beam admittance, the dc transit angle

and the second transit of electron beam through the cavity gap.

The electronic admittance is non linear and is proportional to

is proportional to the signal voltage

Contd..

Reflex klystron saturation factor

Contd..

The equivalent circuit of reflex klystron is shown below. In this circuit

the L and C are energy storage elements in the cavity and Gc copper

losses of the cavity, Gb the beam loading conductance Gl the load

conductance.

The necessary condition for oscillations is the magnitude of the

negative real part of admittance not be less than the total conductance

of the cavity circuit.

Contd..

The electronic admittance in rectangular form

The electronic admittance is in electronic form, its phase is π/2 when

θ0I is zero.

The rectangular plot of electronic admittance Ye is spiral. Any value of

θ0I for which the spiral lies in the area to the left of the line

will yield oscillation.

Contd..

Electronic admittance spiral for reflex klystron

TRAVELING WAVE TUBE:

power amplifiers.

The main virtue of the TWT is its extremely wide band width of

operation.

Basic Structure of TWT:

Travelling Wave Tube

Basic Structure:

The basic structure of a TWT consists of a cathode and filament

heater plus an anode that is biased positively to accelerate the

electron beam forward and to focus it into a narrow beam.

The electrons are attracted by a positive plate called the collector,

which has given a high dc voltage.

The length of the tube is usually many wavelengths at the operating

frequency.

Surrounding the tube are either permanent magnets or electro-

magnets that keep the electrons tightly focused into a narrow beam.

Features:

The unique feature of the TWT is a helix or coil that surrounds the

length of the tube and the electron beam passes through the centre or

axis of the helix.

The microwave signal to be amplified is applied to the end of the helix

near the cathode and the output is taken from the end of the helix

near the collector.

The purpose of the helix is to provide path for RF signal.

The propagation of the RF signal along the helix is made

approximately equal to the velocity of the electron beam from the

cathode to the collector.

Functioning:

The passage of the microwave signal down the helix produces

electric and magnetic fields that will interact with the electron

beam.

The electromagnetic field produced by the helix causes the

electrons to be speeded up and slowed down, this produces

velocity modulation of the beam which produces density

modulation.

Density modulation causes bunches of electrons to group

together one wavelength apart and these bunch of electrons

travel down the length of the tube toward the collector.

Functioning:

The electron bunches induce voltages into the helix

which reinforce the voltage already present there.Due to

that the strength of the electromagnetic field on the helix

increases as the wave travels down thetube towards the

collector.

At the end of the helix, the signal is considerably

amplified. Coaxial cable or waveguide structures are

used to extract the energy from the helix.

Advantages:

TWT has extremely wide bandwidth. Hence, it can be

made to amplify signals from UHF to hundreds of

gigahertz.

Most of the TWT’s have a frequency range of

approximately 2:1 in the desired segment of the

microwave region to be amplified.

The TWT’s can be used in both continuous and pulsed

modes of operation with power levels up to several

thousands watts.

Performance Charecteristics:

Frequency of operation : 0.5 GHz – 95 GHz

Power outputs: 5 mW (10 – 40 GHz – low power

TWT) 250 kW (CW) at 3 GHz (high power TWT) 10

MW (pulsed) at 3 GHz

Efficiency : 5 – 20 % ( 30 % with depressed collector)

Klystron Vs TWT’s

The microwave circuit in TWT is non resonant and the wave

propagates with the same speed as the electron beam.

The interaction of electron beam and RF field in the TWT is

continuous over the entire length of the circuit, but the interaction in

the klystron occurs only at the gaps of a few resonant cavities.

The wave in the TWT is a propagating wave; the wave in the klystron

is not.

In the coupled-cavity TWT there is a coupling effect between the

cavities, whereas each cavity in the klystron operates independently

TWT’s:

A helix travelling wave tube consists of electron beam and a slow wave

structure. The electron beam is focused by a constant magnetic field along

the electron beam and slow wave structure. This is termed as O-type

travelling wave tube.

The applied signal propagates around the turns of the helix and produces an

electric field at the center of helix and directed along the helix axis.

The axial electric field progresses with a velocity that is very close to the

velocity of light multiplied by the ratio of helix pitch to helix

circumference.

When the electrons enter the helix tube, an interaction takes place between

the moving axial electric field and the moving electrons. On the average, the

electrons transfer energy to the wave on the helix. This interaction causes

the signal wave on the helix to become larger.

Contd…

The electrons entering the helix at zero field are not affected by the

signal wave; those electrons entering the helix at the accelerating field

are accelerated, and those at the retarding field are decelerated.

As the electrons travel further along the helix, they bunch at the

collector end. The bunching shifts the phase by π/2. Each electron in the

bunch encounters a stronger retarding field.

Then the microwave energy of the electrons is delivered by the

electron bunch to the wave on the helix. The amplification of the

signal wave is accomplished.

Slow wave Structures:

As the operating frequency is increased, both inductance and

capacitance of the resonant circuit must be decreased in order to

maintain resonance at the operating frequency.

Since the gain bandwidth product is limited by resonant circuit, the

ordinary resonator cannot generate a large output.

Several non resonant periodic circuits or slow wave circuits are

designed for producing large gain over a wide bandwidth.

Slow wave Structures:

Slow wave structures are special circuits that are used in microwave

tubes to reduce the wave velocity in a certain direction so that the

electron beam and the signal wave interact.

The phase velocity of a wave in ordinary waveguides is greater than

velocity of light in vacuum.

In magnetrons, TWT’s, the electron beam must be with the

microwave signal.

The electron beam must be accelerated only to velocities about

fraction of velocity of light, a slow wave structure is placed in

microwave device so that the phase velocities of microwave signal is in

pace with electron beam for effective interactions.

Slow wave Structures:

The commonly used slow wave structure is a helical coil with a

concentric conducting cylinder.

The ratio of phase velocity Vp along the pitch to the phase velocity

along the coil

Slow wave Structures:

The helical coil may be with in a dielectric filled cylinder. The phase

velocity in the axial direction is expressed as

If the dielectric constant is too large, the slow wave structure may

introduce considerable losses, there by reducing efficiency

Slow wave Structures:

Figure shows ω – β (or Brillouin) diagram for a helical slow wave

structure

Slow wave Structures:

For the circuit to be a slow wave structure, it must be the property of

periodicity in the axial direction.

In the helical slow wave structure a translation back or forth through a

distance of one pitch length identically same structure again. Thus the

period of slow wave structure is its pitch.

Floquet’s periodicity theorem(the field of the slow wave structure

must be distributed according to periodic boundaries)

“ the steady state solutions for the electro magnetic fields of a single

propagating mode in a periodic structure have the property that fields

in the adjacent cells are related by a complex constant.”

Slow wave Structure:

Where E(x,y,z) is a periodic function of z with period L. β0 is phase

constant of average electron velocity in slow wave structure.

period of slow wave structure.

For periodic structure z is replaced with z- L

Slow wave Structure:

From the theory of fourier series, any function is periodic, single-

valued, finite, and continuous may be represented by a fourier series

Field distribution function E(x,y,z) may be expanded into fourier series of

fundamental period L as

n= - ,-2,-1,0,1,2,3…

Slow wave Structure:

is itself solution of wave equation for each value of n

the field in a periodic structure can be expanded as an infinite series of

waves, all at the same frequency but with different phase velocities Vpn

Slow wave structure:

It is important note that phase velocity Vpn in the axial direction

decreases for higher values of n and β0

Slow wave Structure:

The second quadrant of ω – β indicates the negative phase velocity that

corresponds to negative n. the electron beam moves in positive z

direction while beam velocity coincides with the negative spatial

harmonics of phase velocity. This type of tube is called Backward wave

oscillator.

The shaded areas are the forbidden regions for propagation. This

situation occurs because if the axial phase velocity of any spatial

harmonics exceeds the velocity of light, the structure radiates the

energy

Amplification Process:

The slow-wave structure of the helix is characterized by brillouin

diagram. The phase shift per period of the fundamental wave on

structure is given by

Where β0 = ω/v0 is the phase constant of the average beam velocity

and L is the period or pitch.

Since the dc transit time of an electron is given by

The phase constant of the nth space harmonic

with the beam velocity for possible interactions between electron

beam and electric field

Amplification Process:

In practice, the dc velocity of electrons is adjusted to be slightly

greater than the axial velocity of the electromagnetic wave for energy

transfer

When a signal voltage is coupled into the helix, the axial electric field

exerts a force on electrons as a result of the following relationships

The electrons entering the retarding field are decelerated and those in

accelerating field are accelerated. They begin forming a bunch

centered about those electrons that enter the helix during the zero

field

Amplification Process:

Schematic diagram of helix travelling wave tube

Amplification Process:

Simplified circuit

The dc velocity of the electrons is slightly greater than the axial wave

velocity, more electrons are in retarding field than in the accelerating

field and a great amount of energy is transferred from the beam to the

electromagnetic field.

Amplification Process:

The microwave signal voltage is amplified by amplified field. The

bunch continues to become more compact and a large amplification

occurs at the end of helix.

The magnet produces an axial magnetic field to prevent the spreading

of the electron beam as it travels down the tube. An attenuator placed

near the center of helix reduces all the waves travelling along the helix

to nearly zero so that the reflected waves from the mismatched loads

can be prevented from reaching the input and causing the oscillation.

The bunched electrons emerging from the attenuator induce a new

electric field with the same frequency. This field in turn induces a new

amplified microwave signal on the helix.

Amplification Process:

The motion of electrons in the helix travelling wave tube can be

quantitatively analyzed in terms of the axial electric field. If the

travelling wave is propagating in the z direction, the z component of

the electric field is expressed as

where E1 is the magnitude of the electric field in the z direction. If

t=t0 at z=0, the electric field is assumed maximum. Note that βp =

ω/vp is the axial phase constant of the microwave and vp is the axial

phase velocity of the wave.

The equation of motion of electron is given by

Amplification Process:

From the equation

For interactions between the electrons and the electric field, the

velocity of the velocity modulated electron beam must be

approximately equal to dc electron velocity.

Amplification Process:

Hence the distance z travelled by the electrons is

beam is directly proportional to the magnitude of axial electric field

Convection Current:

To determine the relationship between the circuit and electron beam

quantities, the convection current induced in the electron beam by the

axial electric field and the microwave axial field produced by the beam

must be developed.

When space charge effect is considered the electron velocity, the

charge density, the current density, and the axial electric field will

perturbate about their dc or average values. Mathematically these

quantities are expressed as

of axial waves

Convection Current:

The minus sign is attached to J0 so that J0 may be a positive in the

negative z direction. For a small signal, the electron beam current

density can be written as

Where

If the axial electric field exists in the structure, it will perturbate the

electron velocity according to the force equation

Convection Current:

From the law of conservation of charge, the continuity equation can

be written as

Convection Current:

If the magnitude of the axial electric field is uniform in the cross

sectional area of the electron beam, the spatial ac current i will be

proportional to the dc current I0 with the same proportionality

constant for J1 and J0. therefore the convection current of electron

beam is given by

modulated electron beam. And

The above equation is called electronic equation, it determines the

convection current induced by the axial electric field.