Sei sulla pagina 1di 20

Public Relations:

Strategies and Tactics


11th Edition

Dennis L. Wilcox Glen T. Cameron Bryan H. Reber

This multimedia product and its contents are protected under copyright law. The following are prohibited by law:
•any public performance or display, including transmission of any image over a network;
•preparation of any derivative work, including the extraction, in whole or in part, of any images;
•any rental, lease, or lending of the program.

Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Chapter 10

Conflict Management: Dealing


with Issues, Risks, and Crises

Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Chapter 10 Objectives
 Understand the role of public relations in managing
conflict
 Describe the two basic principles of strategic conflict
management
 Identify the four phases of the conflict management life
cycle
 Understand the issues management process as a key
public relations contribution
 Explain the relationship between the conflict stance and
the communication strategy
 Identify important steps to deal with a crisis as it occurs
 Define reputation and the role public relations plays in
image repair
Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Strategic Conflict Management
 Strategic
 for the purpose of achieving
particular objectives
 Management
 planned, deliberate action
 Competition
 striving for the same object,
position, or prize as others
 Conflict
 sharp disagreements or opposition
resulting in a direct, overt threat of
attack from another entity

Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Competition and Conflict

Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Importance of Professionalism

 PR practitioners must have a sense that…


 Your organization’s behavior is honorable and
defensible
 Your organization is ethical
 Your organization’s mission is worthy
 Your advocacy of the organization has integrity
 Your organization works at creating mutual benefits
whenever possible

Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
The Role of Public Relations in
Managing Conflict

 Occurs when a business or industry contends


with government regulators or activist groups
that seem determined to curtail operations
through excessive safety or environmental
standards
 Both the regulatory body and the activists
engage in their own public relations efforts to
make their case against the company

Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
The Role of Conflict in Public
Relations
 Typically organizations wish to reduce conflict
 Best to deal with conflicts in early stages
 More efficient
 Less damage to organization
 Ethical thing to do
 Most conflict situations are not clear-cut in
terms of an ideal solution
 Public relations professionals have to make
tough calls and advocate strictly on behalf of
their organization

Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
It Depends—A System for
Managing Conflict

 Must determine the stance the organization will


take toward each public or stakeholder involved
in the conflict situation
 Stance then determines strategy
 The stance-driven approach is based on virtually
all practitioners sharing an unstated, informal
approach to managing conflict and competition:
in other words, “it depends”

Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Threat Appraisal Model

Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
It Depends: Two Basic Principles

 A matrix of contingency factors


 The contingency continuum

Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
The Conflict Management Life
Cycle

 Shows the “big picture” of how to manage a


conflict

Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Processes for Managing
the Life Cycle

 Issues management
 Conflict Positioning
and Risk
Communication
 Crisis management
 Reputation
Management

Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Issues Management

 Proactive and  5 step process


systematic approach  Issue identification
to…  Issue analysis
 Predict problems  Strategy options
 Anticipate threats  Action plan
 Minimize surprises  Evaluation
 Resolve issues
 Prevent crises

Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Conflict Positioning and Risk
Communication

 Conflict positioning = any verbal or written


exchange that tries to communicate information
that positions the organization favorably
regarding competition or conflict
 Risk communication minimizes adverse effects
on public and organization
 Variables affecting risk perceptions
 Too numerous to count
 See short list on p. 264

Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Crisis Management

 What is a crisis?  Strategies for


 Major occurrence with responding to crises
potentially negative  Attack the accuser
outcome for organization
 Denial
 A lack of crisis planning  Excuse
 Among Fortune 500
 Justification
companies
 89% of CEOs view crises as  Ingratiation
inevitable  Corrective action
 50% have no crisis
management plan  Full apology

Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
How to Communicate in a Crisis

Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Reputation Management

 Reputation is the track record of an organization


in the public’s mind
 The three foundations of reputation
 Economic performance
 Social responsiveness
 The ability to deliver valuable outcomes to
stakeholders

Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Reputation Management, cont.

 Many forces affect corporate reputations

Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Reputation Management, cont.

 Image restoration strategies


 Denial
 Evade responsibility
 Reduce offensiveness
 Corrective action
 Mortification
 Déjà vu—all over again

Copyright © 2015, 2012, 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.