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Tecnologia Mecânica

ano lectivo 2007-2008

Soldadura no estado sólido por


fricção
Friction Welding
• Developed in the 1940’s

• Parts are circular in shape

• Can be used to join a wide variety of materials

Fig: Sequence of operation in the friction welding process 1)Left-hand component is rotated at high speed. 2)
Right-hand component is brought into contact under an axial force 3)Axial force is increased;the flash begins to
form 4) Left-hand component stops rotating;weld is completed.The flash can subsequently be removed by
machining or grinding
Friction Welding
• Process can be fully automated

• Can weld solid steel bars up to 250mm in outside diameter

Fig:Shape of friction zone in friction welding,as a function of the force applied and the rotational speed
Inertia Friction Welding
• Modification of Friction Welding
• Energy is supplied by a fly wheel
• The parts are pressed together by a normal force
• As friction at the interface increases, the fly wheel slows down
• The weld is completed when the flywheel stops

Fig : The principle of the friction stir welding


process. Aluminum-alloy plates up to 75mm
(3in) thick have been welded by this process
Soldadura de alumínio por fricção linear
Soldadura no estado sólido por fricção linear

Está muito na moda, actualmente.

• Materiais como o alumínio podem ser


facilmente soldados sem serem fundidos, com
recurso ao processo de soldadura por fricção
linear, que foi inventado recentemente pelo
Instituto de Soldadura Inglês (TWI). Trata-se
de uma fusão no estado sólido, mecânica, e
deixa uma soldadura perfeita, com o mínimo de
defeitos, e sem uma ZTA apreciável.

• Este processo é usado, por exemplo, na Boeing


para a soldadura dos tanques de combustível
dos foguetões do programa Delta IV.

• É usado igualmente em construção naval,


sobretudo em embarcações de alumínio.
Soldadura no estado sólido
FSW – Friction Stir Welding ®
Friction stir welding is a fully penetrating solid phase process,
which can be used to join metal sheets – at present mainly for
aluminium – without reaching their melting point.

Friction stir welding (FSW) has been invented, patented and


developed for its industrial applications by TWI - The Welding
Institute in Cambridge, UK. In friction stir welding, a cylindrical
shouldered tool with a profiled pin is rotated and slowly plunged into
the joining area between two pieces of sheet or plate material, which
are butted together. The parts have to be clamped onto a backing bar
in a manner that prevents the abutting joint faces from being forced
apart. Frictional heat between the wear resistant welding tool and the
workpieces causes the latter to soften without reaching the melting
point and allows traversing of the tool along the weld line. The
plasticised material is transferred to the trailing edge of the tool pin
and is forged by the intimate contact of the tool shoulder and the pin
profile. On cooling down, it leaves a solid phase bond between the
two pieces.

Friction stir welding can be used to join aluminium sheets and plates
without filler wire or shielding gas. Material thicknesses from 1.6 to 30
mm can be welded at full penetration and without porosity or internal
voids. High integrity welds with low distortion can be achieved in
many aluminium alloys, even those considered difficult to weld by
conventional fusion welding techniques. Materials that have been
successfully friction stir welded to date include a variety of aluminium
alloys (2xxx, 5xxx, 6xxx, 7xxx and 8xxx series) and Al-Li alloys.
More recently, friction stir welding has also been demonstrated for the
joining of lead, copper, magnesium and even titanium alloys.
Friction stir-weld, butt joint
between aluminium plates.

Fresadora utilizada para


este efeito

http://www.msm.cam.ac.uk/phase-trans/2003/FSW/aaa.html
A section through a friction stir
weld made in an Al-Si casting
alloy. There are pores indicated in
the base metal (BM). HAZ
represents the heat affected zone,
TMAZ the thermomechanically
affected zone, and SN the stir
nugget.

The photographs in this section


have kindly been provided by
Professor H. Fujii of JWRI, Japan.

Optical micrographs showing the


microstructure in (a) the base
metal; (b) heat-affected zone; (c)
the thermomechanically affected
zone, where considerable
refinement of the silicon has
occurred.

Optical micrographs of regions


(a), (b) and (c) of the stir nugget.
The location of these regions is
identified in macroscopic section
presented above.