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THE SOCIETY AS “DRIVERS OF

INTERACTION”
The study of Society can be
accomplished in three ways:
1. by mapping the social forces affecting social
actors as their lives intersect in society
2. by rehearsing the structures and components
of cultural practices and traditions
3. by exposing the asymmetrical power
distributions among members of social
communities and organizations.
COMMON CONCERN OF THE 3 DICIPLINE (Sociology,
Anthropology, Political Science):

 To understand the dynamics of


social interactions in society
Guide questions:

 What is the focus of the discipline?


 How it emerged as a discipline?
 Contributors or prominent personalities
in the development of the discipline
 Perspectives or views of the discipline
Distinct Perspectives or Focus of
the Three Disciplines:
 Sociology:
The perspective highlights the
external influences that
facilitate or constraint human
actions.
Distinct Perspectives or Focus of
the Three Disciplines:
 Anthropology:
The perspective underlines the
role of cultural structures in
organizing human interactions.
Distinct Perspectives or Focus of
the Three Disciplines:
 Political Science:
The perspective zeroes in on
power relations and how these
produce layered modalities of
opportunities among social
actors.
The Three Disciplines of Social
Science under UCSP:
 Sociology:
Focuses on the ubiquity or (the
everywhere-ness”) of social
forces in unlikely forms: sex,
gender, religion, class, race,
ethnicity, sexual orientation, and
the like.
The Three Disciplines of Social
Science under UCSP:
 Social Forces.
Any human-created way of
doing things that influence,
pressure, or force people to
behave, interact with others,
and think in certain ways.
The Three Disciplines of Social
Science under UCSP:
 Social Forces.
Are normally in the form of
rules (written and unwritten),
norms, and expectations.
The Three Disciplines of Social
Science under UCSP:
Social Map = refers to a
person’s specific economic
and political location.
Ex. A person who is famous in
the community gets a lot of
opportunities in life than others.
The Three Disciplines of Social
Science under UCSP:
Sociological Imagination =
imagining the intersections
of one’s life and the events
of one’s society (Mills, 1959)
The Three Disciplines of Social
Science under UCSP:
Sociological Imagination =
allows social actors to discern
opportunities where there is
none by converting their
personal troubles into public
issues.
The Three Disciplines of Social
Science under UCSP:

Sociology was born in


Europe (Germany, England,
and France) during the period
of Industrial Revolution.
The Three Disciplines of Social
Science under UCSP:

August Comte was the


father of the discipline for
having coined the term
sociology
The Three Disciplines of Social
Science under UCSP:

Karl Marx, Emile Durkheim, Max Weber


were the first to raise critical questions
about the deluge of changes brought
about by the mushrooming factories
(and associated technologies) within
and outside the major cities of England.
The Three Disciplines of Social
Science under UCSP:

Emile Durkheim. A French social


thinker, was instrumental in the
formalization and later recognition
of sociology as the new science o
the study of society.
The Three Disciplines of Social
Science under UCSP:
Emile Durkheim.
 Concretize “niche problematique” of
sociology.
 Introduced the concept of social fact
(another name for social phenomenon)
with his monumental work on suicide
The Three Disciplines of Social
Science under UCSP:
Emile Durkheim.
 The concept of social fact gave way to
the recognition of sociology as Social
Science in France.
The Three Disciplines of Social
Science under UCSP:
Emile Durkheim.
 Social fact – a characteristics and
determinants which are capable of
holding an external constraint on the
individual.
The Three Disciplines of Social Science under UCSP:

Karl Marx.
 He produced the most scornful critique of
capitalist exploitation of the labor class for
profit
 The concept of conflict paradigm was able
to demonstrate the role of conflict in the
evolution of society.
The Three Disciplines of Social Science under UCSP:

Max Weber.
 He together with Durkheim both saw society
as a system with parts and functions
(manifest or latent)
 The healthy system is defined by the parts
performing their assigned tasks working in
coordination with the parts of the system.
The Three Disciplines of Social Science under UCSP:

Max Weber.
 The parts and functions are the basic
assumptions of the structural functional
perspective in sociology
The Three Disciplines of Social Science under UCSP:

Charles Horton Cooley, Herbert Blumer,


George Herbert Mead.
 Produced the foundational principles of
Symbolic Interactionism school of thought.
 Social interactions are governed by the
meanings shared and co-created by social
actors in every interaction or encounter.
The Three Disciplines of Social
Science under UCSP:
 Anthropology:
A science seeking to “uncover
principles of behavior that
apply to all human
communities”(American
Anthropological Association).
The Three Disciplines of Social
Science under UCSP:
 Anthropology:
Diversity is seen in body shapes
and sizes, customs, clothing,
speech, religion, and worldview. It
provides a frame of reference for
understanding any single aspect
of life in any given community.
The Three Disciplines of Social
Science under UCSP:
 Anthropology:
Diversity is seen in body shapes
and sizes, customs, clothing,
speech, religion, and worldview. It
provides a frame of reference for
understanding any single aspect
of life in any given community.
The Three Disciplines of Social
Science under UCSP:
 Anthropology:
Anthropologists are looking
for “culture universal”
instead of “universal
culture”.
The Three Disciplines of Social
Science under UCSP:
 Anthropology:
Culture Universal = patterns
of similarity within an array of
differences.
The Three Disciplines of Social
Science under UCSP:
 Anthropology:
Universal Culture = cultural
artifacts that appear the
same or similar everywhere
they are found.
The Three Disciplines of Social Science under UCSP:

 Anthropology:
“Equal but different” is an
approach in relation to
“culture universal” enshrined
in the motto of anthropology.
The Three Disciplines of Social Science under UCSP:

 Anthropology:
 Focuses on human diversity around
the world.
 Anthropologists look at cross-cultural
differences in social institutions,
cultural beliefs, and communication
styles.
The Three Disciplines of Social Science under UCSP:

 The Social in the Guise of Inequality:


 Social diversity is an ever-present and
enduring feature of all known cultures
around the world, from the most
primitive to the most highly urbanized
known as “social inequality” or “social
stratification”.
The Three Disciplines of Social Science under UCSP:

 Seen modalities of social inequality, cultural


diversity, and social diversity in the three
disciplines:
 Sociologists attributed the persistence and
omnipresence of social inequality to the
beneficial functions it provides for the overall
operation of society.
Merit system is the system of providing incentives
and rewards depending on the qualifications of the
social actors involved.
The Three Disciplines of Social Science under UCSP:

 Seen modalities…
Political Scientists explain
social inequality as a product
of an asymmetrical
distribution of power in
society.
The Three Disciplines of Social Science
under UCSP:
 Seen modalities…
 Political Scientists explain social inequality
as a product of an asymmetrical distribution
of power in society.
 The manifestation of power relations is the
existence of the state, which may be seen
as a legitimate mediator of societal
tensions, as well as of social integration.
The Three Disciplines of Social Science
under UCSP:
 Seen modalities…
Anthropologists take account of the
“equal but different ways” of how
people live in the world.
 The difference dimension is seen as
representing the culture’s inherent
value, hence it is essential to the
appreciation of the culture sui generis.
The Three Disciplines of Social Science
under UCSP:
 Seen modalities…
The equal dimension is
interpreted on the basis of the
logic that the same appraisal
can be used to judge even
influential and renowned
cultures. Ex. Rituals and system.
The Three Disciplines of Social Science
under UCSP:
 An Unofficial Story of Anthropology
Anthropology has been
pejoratively called “child of
colonization” because discoverers
of new territories were always
accompanied by missionary
documents (a.k.a. ethnographers)
The Three Disciplines of Social Science
under UCSP:

 An Unofficial Story of
Anthropology
Ethnographers – referred to
as “scribes of cultures”
The Three Disciplines of Social Science
under UCSP:
 An Unofficial Story…
Two Essential things about Anthropology:
1. Its “methodology” of documenting one’s
engagement with a different culture.
Known as “ethnographic method”.
2. Its fascination with the ways of life in
different societies. The “niche of the
subject”.
The Three Disciplines of Social Science
under UCSP:
 An Unofficial Story…
Two Essential things about Anthropology:
 The second method points out the
fascination to understand familiar and
exotic cultures as a distinctive take on
the issue of equality and difference
when applied to cultural taxonomy.
The Three Disciplines of Social Science
under UCSP:

 Forms of Diversity: Social and


Cultural
Cultural diversity means a
range of different origins,
religions, and traditions all
living and interacting together.
The Three Disciplines of Social Science
under UCSP:

 Forms of Diversity: Social and


Cultural
Social diversity refers to the gaps
between people measured by
the presence or absence of
certain socially desirable traits.
The Three Disciplines of Social Science
under UCSP:
 Forms of Diversity: Social and Cultural
Culturally Dictated Bases of Diversity:
o skin color
o language
o ethnicity
 They represent ways of life that are
determined by their respective
geographies, environments, and ecologies.
The Three Disciplines of Social Science
under UCSP:
 Political Science:
The systematic study of government and
politics. It includes the study of political
philosophy, ethics, international
relations, foreign policy, public
administration, and the dynamic
relations between different parts of
governments.
The Three Disciplines of Social Science
under UCSP:

 Political Science:
 Power relations are forms of
interaction mediated by the
use and deployment of
authority and political
influence.
The Three Disciplines of Social Science
under UCSP:
 Political Science…
The Social as a Tool of Change:
Social Change is defined as the alteration of
mechanisms within the social structure,
characterized by changes in cultural symbols,
rules of behavior, social organizations, or value
systems. It is used to indicate the changes that
takes place in human interactions and
interrelations
The Three Disciplines of Social Science
under UCSP:
 Political Science…
The Social as a Tool of Change…
 Sociology is both the consequence
and the cause of change given its
historical development from
Renaissance and Industrial
Revolution periods.
The Three Disciplines of Social Science
under UCSP:
 Political Science…
The Social as a Tool of Change…
 Becoming aware of the structure of
society – a consciousness called
sociological imagination is a powerful
tool that allows us to ask not only “What
is going on here?” but also “Should
things be as they are?”
The Three Disciplines of Social Science
under UCSP:
 Political Science…
The Social as a Tool of Change…
 Social activism consist of the efforts to
promote, inhibit, or (re)direct social,
political, economic, or environmental
issues with the desire to make
improvements in society and correct
social justice.
The Three Disciplines of Social Science
under UCSP:
 Political Science…
The Social as a Tool of Change…
Forms of Social activism:
o writing letters to newspapers or politicians
o political campaigning
o economic boycott
o preferential patronizing of businesses
The Three Disciplines of Social Science
under UCSP:
 The Story of Political Science: A Crib
Version
 The discipline was traditionally believed to
have emerged from the works of “social
contract” theorists.
 Social thinkers argued for the existence of
state in order to create a community of
citizens free from brutalities of the state of
nature.
The Three Disciplines of Social Science
under UCSP:

 The Story of Political Science: A Crib


Version...
Social contract requires the people to
surrender, completely or in part, their
rights to whoever authority who which
in return exercises the same for the
protection of everybody.
The Three Disciplines of Social Science
under UCSP:

 The Story of Political Science: A


Crib Version...
 Task of Political Science:
1. The establishment of a political
community that would protect
the collective good.
The Three Disciplines of Social Science
under UCSP:
 The Story of Political Science: A
Crib Version...
 Task of Political Science…
2. The issues of legitimacy, reform,
and resistance /revolution emerge
in failed states to keep each party
fulfill its part.
The Three Disciplines of Social Science
under UCSP:
 The Story of Political Science: A Crib
Version...
 Task of Political Science:
3. It aimed at bringing back the
individual to the political domain,
focusing on what has been labeled as
“identity politics” that celebrated the
saying “the personal is also political”
Performance Task

I. Critical Thinking
Me and My Map
Starting with your present situation as a
student, list down five important factors
that you think are responsible for the
kind of person you are right now. Start
with what is unique in you as a social
person not biophysical traits.
Performance Task

I. Critical Thinking: Me and My Map


My unique features as a Types of social forces Assessment of effects
social person (May responsible for these (Does it provide
include but are not limited features (Is it societal/ opportunities or serve as
to sex, religion, residence) cultural/ political? constraints?)
Performance Task

II. Performance: An Open Letter to a


Congressman
Rex, a senior high school student in Valenzuela
City, wrote a petition letter addressed to his
district’s representative in Congress. Rex observed
the proliferation of informal dumpsites near his
barangay. He even took photos of these
dumpsites and their specific locations in the
municipality. Rex knew that the garbage situation
Performance Task

II. Performance: An Open Letter…


Will eventually create health problems in his and
nearby barangays if it remains unchecked. So he
wrote a letter to his district’s congressman and
petitioned the latter to do something about the
garbage situation, specifically regarding proper
garbage collection and management. He posted
a copy of his letter on his Facebook time line.
Performance Task

II.Performance: An Open Letter…


Can an open letter written by Rex bring about
social change? If so, enumerate ways on how it
can be seen in that light. Write your insights in the
box below.