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INTRODUCTION TO THE

STUDY OF GLOBALIZATION
TOPIC OUTLINE

• Defining the “Contemporary”


• Approaches to the Study of Globalization
• Defining “Globalization”
• Globalization and Its Structures
DEFINING
“CONTEMPORARY”
DEFINING “CONTEMPORARY”

• There is this assumption that it need not to be asked – that it


must already be understood.

• It is complex – people have dissenting views of “present”,


“today”, and “now”
DEFINING “CONTEMPORARY”

• In colloquial terms, “modern” and “contemporary” are


considered as synonymous.
WHAT IS SOCIAL SCIENCE?
“ALL EXPRESSIONS OF HUMAN CULTURE
ARE RELATED AND INTERDEPENDENT”
BRANCHES OF SOCIAL SCIENCES
WHAT IS GLOBALIZATION?
THE TASK OF DEFINING “GLOBALIZATION”

Literatures about globalization can be classified into two:

(A)BROAD AND INCLUSIVE

“…globalization means the onset of the borderless world”


(Ohmae 1992)
• “Globalization is the moment of mass migration,
multiculturalism and cosmopolitanism” (Szeman 2003)

• “…it is nothing but ‘recolonization’ in a new garb” (Neeraj


2001)
THE TASK OF DEFINING “GLOBALIZATION”
(B) NARROW AND EXCLUSIVE

“the characteristics of the globalization trend include the


internationalizing of production, the new international division
of labor, new migratory movements from South to North, and the
internationalizing of the state…making states into agencies of
the globalizing world” (RAWOO Netherlands Development
Assistance Research Council 2000)
• “…globalization is, au fond, a continuation, albeit in an
intensified and accelerated form, of the perduring challenge
of modernization. On the cultural level, this has been the
great challenge of pluralism: the breakdown of taken-for-
granted traditions and the opening up of multiple options for
beliefs, values and lifestyles. It is not a distortion to say that
this amounts to the great challenge of enhanced freedom for
both individuals and collectivities” (Berger 2002)
CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK

ECONOMIC POLITICAL

Globalization

SOCIAL
COMPLEXITY IN DEFINING
“GLOBALIZATION”

• Why are we going to spend time studying the concept?


• How can we appreciate these definitions?
• How can these help us understand globalization?
1. THE PERSPECTIVE OF THE
PERSON WHO DEFINES
GLOBALIZATION SHAPES ITS
DEFINITION.
“Globalization is a ‘world of things’ that have ‘different speeds,
axes, points of origin and termination, and varied relationships
to institutional structures in different regions, nations, or
societies” (Appadurai 1996)

Al Rholdan (2006) wrote that definitions suggest the


perspective of the author on the origins and the geopolitical
implications of globalization.
2. GLOBALIZATION IS THE DEBATE AND
THE DEBATE IS GLOBALIZATION.
“The literature stemming from the debate on
globalization has grown in the last decade beyond any
individual’s capability of extracting a workable
definition of the concept. In a sense, the meaning of the
concept is self-evident, in another, it is vague and
obscure as its reaches are wide and constantly
shifting. Perhaps, more than any other concept,
globalization is the debate about it” (Poppi 1997)
3. GLOBALIZATION IS A REALITY.
THE TASK OF DEFINING
“GLOBALIZATION” AS A CONCEPT
Conclusion
WHAT
GLOBALIZATION
MEANS
WHAT GLOBALIZATION MEANS

• It is taken primarily as an economic process.


1. IT IS DEFINED AS THE
RECOGNITION BY ORGANIZATIONS
THAT BUSINESS MUST HAVE A
GLOBAL, NOT LOCAL FOCUS.
2. IT REFERS TO A NEW PERSPECTIVE, OR
ATTITUDE, ABOUT RELATIONSHIPS WITH
OTHER PEOPLE IN OTHER NATIONS.
FACTORS IN THE PHENOMENON OF
GLOBALIZATION
(Stoner et al. 1995)
1. PROXIMITY

• Organizations now operate in much closer proximity


than ever before to a greater number and range of
customers, competitors, supplies and government
regulators.
2. LOCATION

• The location and integration of an organization’s


operations across several international boundaries is a part
of globalization.
3. ATTITUDE

• Globalization refers to the rising attitude that combines a


curiosity about the world outside one’s national borders with
a willingness to develop the capabilities for participating in
the global economy.
STEGER 2014

• Globalization as “the
expansion and intensification
of social relations and consciousness across
world-time and across world-space”
DANUG & CAMPANILLA 2004

“the process through which


• Globalization is defined as
an increasingly flow of ideas, people, goods and
services, technology, and capital leads to the
integration of economics and societies
unprecedented in effect and outcomes”
ACTIVITY 1.3
• The class will be divided into four (4) groups.
• Each group will enumerate three (3) of the most recent songs they have
listened. They are required to sing the chorus of each song.
• After singing the song, each group is required to answer the following
questions:
a. Where did they originate? Identify the nationality of the writer
and/or artist for each music.
b. What gadgets or devices do you usually use to listen to music?
c. Where were these gadgets or devices made? Where is the
company based?
d. How did you access these music? Did you purchase them online
or listen to them through YouTube, Spotify and other channels?