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GSM Architecture

Network Structure
• Cell
A cell is the basic unit of a cellular
system and is defined as the radio
coverage given by one BTS.

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GSM architecture: PLMN -Public Land Mobile Network
Architecture of GSM
Network
Consists of 4 Subsystems
– BSS (Base Station Subsystem)
– NSS (Network and switching
subsystem)
– OSS (Operation Support
Subsystem)
– MS (Mobile Station)
GSM Architecture
Home Location Register
Network
Management
BTS = Base Transceiver Station Center
AuC
AuC = Authentication Center
Equipment ID
OMC = Operation and Maintenance Center
PSTN = Public Switched Telephone Network
ME = Mobile Equipment Visitor Location OMC
Um Abis A Register

Subscriber B
Identity ME TS Mobile
Module Data
switching
communication
center network
Subscriber
Identity ME
B
TS Base station
Module controller
Subscriber B
Identity ME TS PSTN
Module
Interface
• Um Interface
– Interface between mobile and BTS
– Covers physical layer (TDMA frame structure), data link
layer, controls radio connection etc.
• A-bis Interface
– Interface between BTS and BSC
– Covers physical layer (how voice circuits are carried), link
layer, and signaling
• A Interface
– Interface between MSC and BSC
– Covers physical layer, link layer (SCCP/MTP) and signaling
GSM Architecture
MS Transmission BS Transmission
Band : 890 – 915 Band : 935 – 960
MHZ MHZ
45 MHz
Year Introduced 1990

1 Access method TDMA


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3 Channel 200 kHz
4 Bandwidth
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Number of duplex 125
6
channels
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F1 F2 F1' F2' 8 Users per channel 8
Frequency
Speech coding bit 13 kbps
rate
Data coding bit 12 kbps
rate
Frame size 4.6 ms
Network Structure
LOCATION AREA
A LA is defined as a group of cells.Within the
network, a subsriber’s location is known by the LA
which they are in.
The identity of the LA in which an MS is currently
located is stored in the VLR. (LAI)

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Network Structure

• MSC Service Area


An MSC Service Area is made up of
LAs and represents the
geographical part of the network
controlled by one MSC.

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Network Structure
• PLMN SERVICE AREA
A PLMN service area is the entire set of
cells served by one network operator
and is defined as the area in which an
operator offers radio coverage and
access to its network.

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Network Structure

• GSM SERVICE AREA


The GSM service area is the entire
geographical area in which a subscriber
can gain access to a GSM network.

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Relation between areas in GSM

Location
CellArea
Location Area
MSC Service Area
PLMN Service Area
GSM Service Area

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Mobile Station

GSM MSs consist of:


• Mobile Equipment
• Subscriber Identity Module

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Functions of Mobile Station
• Voice and data transmission & receipt
• Frequency and time synchronization
• Monitoring of power and signal quality
of the surrounding cells
• Provision of location updates even
during inactive state

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Mobile Station

• Can receive, store, send SMS up to 160


characters.
• MS identified by unique IMEI shown on
pressing *#06#.
• Power levels of 20W, 8W, 5W, 2W and
.8W

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SIM
SIM has microprocessor and memory.
Fixed data stored for the subscription:
• IMSI,
• Authentication Key, Ki
• Security Algorithms:kc,A3,A8
• PIN & PUK

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Network Identities
• IMEI
• MSISDN
• IMSI
• TMSI
• MSRN

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IMEI
• International Mobile Equipment
Identity
• The IMEI is an unique code allocated to each
mobile equipment. It is checked in the EIR.
• IMEI check List
 White List

 Grey List

 Black List

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MSISDN
• Mobile Station ISDN Number
• The MSISDN is registered in the telephone directory and
used by the calling party for dialing.
• MSISDN shall not exceed 15 digits.
• NDC--National Destination Code
• SN--Subscriber Number

1 to 3 digits Variable Variable


CC NDC SN

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IMSI
• International mobile subscriber
Identity
• The IMSI is an unique identity which is used
internationally and used within the network to
identify the mobile subscribers.
• The IMSI is stored in (SIM), the HLR, VLR
database.

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Temporary Mobile subscriber Identity

• TMSI is a temporary IMSI no. made known to


an MS at registration.
• The VLR assigns a TMSI to each mobile
subscribers entering the VLR area.
• Assigned only after successful authentication.

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MSRN
Mobile Station Roaming Number
• The MSRN is used in the GMSC to set up a
connection to the visited MSC/VLR.
• MSRN--is a temporary identity which is
assigned during the establishment of a call to a
roaming subs.

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BASE STATION SYSTEM (BSS)

MSC/VLR

BSC BSC

BSC
BSS

n BTS n BTS

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FUNCTIONS OF BTS (Base Transceiver
Station)(rssslf)

• Radio resources
• Signal Processing
• Signaling link management
• Synchronization
• Local maintenance handling
• Functional supervision and Testing

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FUNCTIONS OF BSC

• Radio Resource management


• Internal BSC O&M
• Handling of MS connections

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Switching System (SS)
SS7 Signalling
Traffic Path VLR D

C HLR AUC
F
E
Other
EIR A
MSC MSC

(PSTN)

(BSS)

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MSC Functions
• Switcing and call routing
• Charging
• Service provisioning
• Communication with HLR
• Communication with VLR
• Communication with other MSCs
• Control of connected BSCs

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MSC Functions
• Echo canceller operation control

• Signaling interface to databases like HLR, VLR.

• Gateway to SMS between SMS centers and


subscribers

• Handle interworking function while working as


GMSC

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VISITOR LOCATION REGISTER (VLR)
• It contains data of all mobiles roaming in its
area.

• One VLR may be incharge of one or more LA.

• VLR is updated by HLR on entry of MS its area.

• VLR assigns TMSI which keeps on changing.

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Data in VLR
• IMSI & TMSI
• MSISDN
• MSRN.
• Location Area
• Supplementary service parameters
• MS category
• Authentication Key

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Home Location Register(HLR)

• Reference store for subscriber’s parameters,


numbers, authentication & Encryption values.

• Current subscriber status and associated VLR.

• Both VLR and HLR can be implemented in the


same equipment in an MSC.

• one PLMN may contain one or several HLR.

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Home Location Register(HLR)
• Permanent data in HLR
• Data stored is changed only by commands.

• IMSI, MS-ISDN number.

• Category of MS ( whether pay phone or not )

• Roaming restriction ( allowed or not ).

• Supplementary services like call forwarding

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Home Location Register(HLR)
• Temporary data in HLR
• The data changes from call to call & is dynamic

• MSRN

• RAND /SRES and Kc

• VLR address , MSC address.

• Messages waiting data used for SMS

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EQUIPMENT IDENTITY REGISTER ( EIR )

• This data base stores IMEI for all registered


mobile equipments and is unique to every ME.

• Only one EIR per PLMN.

• White list : IMEI, assigned to valid ME.


• Black list : IMEI reported stolen
• Gray list : IMEI having problems like faulty
software, wrong make of equipment etc.

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AUthentication Center (AUC)

To authenticate the subs. attempting to use a


network.
AUC is connected to HLR which provides it
with authentication parameters and ciphering
keys used to ensure network security.

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AUC Functions
To perform subscriber
authentication and to establish
ciphering procedures on the radio
link between the network and MS.

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AUC Functions
Information provided is called a
TRIPLET consists of:

1. RAND(non predictable random number)

2. SRES(Signed response)

3. Kc(ciphering key)
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Operations and Maintenance Centre
OMC
The centralized operation of the various units in
the system and functions needed to maintain the
subsystems.

Dynamic monitoring and controlling of the


network

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Functions Of OMC
-O&M data function

-Configuration management

--Fault report and alarm handling

-Performance supervision/management

-Storage of system software and data

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