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# TWIST

## • Twist is the spiral arrangement of the fibres

around the axis of the yarn.
• The twist binds the fibres together and also
contributes to the strength of the yarn.
• The amount of twist inserted in a yarn defines
the appearance and the strength of the yarn.
• The number of twists is referred to as turns
per inch.
TYPES OF TWIST
• Real twist::
• To insert a real twist into a length of yarn, one
end of the yarn should be
• rotated relative to the other end,Spun yarns
usually have real twist, which
• holds the fibres together in the yarn. as
indicated in figure
• False twist:
• When inserting false twist into a length of
yarn, both ends of the yarn are clamped,
usually by rollers, and twist is inserted with a
false twister between the clamping points, as
indicated in figure (b)
EXPRESSION OF TWIST
• Amount of twist expressed in –
• 1) Twist Per Inch(TPI)
• 2) Twist Per Meter(TPM)
• 3) Twist Per Centemeter(TPC)
• FACTORS AFFECTING TWIST
• The twist introduced in the yarn during spinning depends
upon a number of
• factors, such as follows:
• 1. The count of yarn to be spun
• 2. The quality of cotton used
• 3.The use to which the yarn is put- is the yarn meant to be
used as warp yarn
• or weft yarn, knitting yarn or any other yarn.
• 4.The fineness of the fibre being spun
• 5. The softness of the fabric into which the yarn is to be
converted
YARN TWIST

## • In practice, yarn twist is described using three

main parameters:
• (a) twist direction
• (b) twist factor or twist multiplier
• And
• (c) twist level (turns/unit length).
TWIST DIRECTION
• S twist
• When a twisted yarn is held vertically, the
individual filaments are appearing
• in this case as the diagonal in the letter "S". The
same can apply if several
• yarns have been twisted together: their
combined twist can again appear as
• the diagonal of the letter "S".
• Fig: Direction of S twist
Z twist

## • When a twisted yarn is held vertically, the

individual filaments are appearing
• in this case as the diagonal in the letter "Z".
The same can apply if several
• yarns have been twisted together: their
combined twist can again appear as
• the diagonal of the letter "Z".
• Fig: Direction of Z twist
• TWIST FACTOR OR TWIST MULTIPLIER
• The twist factor or twist multiplier is a
measure of twist, which accounts for the
• yarn radius as well as the twist level.
• TM=TPC√tex
• or TM=TPI÷√Ne
• TWIST FACTOR OR TWIST MULTIPLIERS
• Higher twist multipliers are used :
• * to increase yarn tenacity and yarn elongation;
• * to produce lean yarns with low hairiness;
• * to improve spinning stability;
• * to obtain a clean-cut fabric appearance
• and
• * to improve the shifting resistance of the yarns
• Lower twist multipliers are selected,
• * to achieve a soft hand in the final fabric;
• * to produce bulky and more hairy yarns;
• * to reduce a yarn‘s tendency to snarl
• and
• * increase output with the same rotor speed.
• TWIST LEVEL
• Twist level expressed in the number of turns
per unit length.
• hT = 1
• Here , h = one turn of twist
• T = twist level
• FUNCTION OF TWIST IN YARN STRUCTURE
• 1) To increase the yarn strength in order to
withstand the stress of
• preparation and fabric manufacture.
• 2) The main function of twist is to give coherence
to the yarn.
• 3) If the twist is low , the fibres can be made to
slide past one another ,
• but if it is large , the increasing tension would
break the fibres