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STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT & BUSINESS POLICY

13TH EDITION
THOMAS L. WHEELEN J. DAVID HUNGER
Corporation: a mechanism established to allow different
parties to contribute capital, expertise and labor for
their mutual benefit

Corporation is governed by the board of directors


that oversees top management with the
concurrence/agreement of the shareholders.

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Corporate governance: the relationship among the
board of directors, top management and shareholders in
determining the direction and performance of the
corporation

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Due care: Board of directors are responsible that the
corporation is not harmed by members of the board.
Directors can be held liable

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Responsibilities of the Board of Directors

1. Sets corporate strategy, overall direction, mission, or


vision
2. Hires and fires the CEO and top management
3. Controls, monitors, or supervises top management
4. Reviews and approves the use of resources
5. Cares for shareholders’ interests
6. Assures that the corporation is managed in accordance
with state laws, security regulations and conflict of
interest situations

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Role of the Board in Strategic Management

• Monitor developments inside and outside the


corporation
• Evaluate and Influence management proposals,
decisions and actions
• Initiate and Determine the corporation’s mission and
strategies

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Board of Directors Continuum

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Members of a Board of Directors

Inside Directors are officers or executives employed by


the board’s corporation

Outside Directors are executives of other firms but are


not employees of the board’s corporation

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Members of a Board of Directors

Affiliated directors- not employed by the corporation,


handle legal or insurance work

Retired executive directors- used to work for the


corporation, partly responsible for past decisions
affecting current strategy

Family directors- descendents of the founder and own


significant blocks of stock

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Members of a Board of Directors
Agency theory problems arise in corporations because
top management is not willing to accept responsibility
for their decisions unless they own a substantial amount
of stock in the corporation. (Agent=manager)
• Stewardship theory it suggests that executives tend
to be more motivated to act in the best interests of the
corporation than in their own self-interests. Stewardship
theory focuses on the higher-order needs, such as
achievement and self-actualization.
• The theory argues that senior executives over time tend
to view the corporation as an extension of themselves.

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• Co-determination: Should Employees
Serve on Boards?
• Corporations such as Chrysler, Northwest
Airlines, United Airlines (UAL), and
Wheeling-Pittsburgh Steel added
representatives from employee
associations to their boards as part of
union agreements or Employee Stock
Ownership Plans (ESOPs).

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A direct interlocking
directorate
• Occurs when two firms share a director
or when an executive of one firm sits
on the board of a second firm.
• An indirect interlock occurs when two
corporations have directors who also
serve on the board of a third firm, such as
a bank.

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Interlocking Directorates- useful for gaining both
inside information about an uncertain environment and
objective expertise about potential strategies and tactics

Direct interlocking directorate- when two firms share


a director or when an executive of one firm sits on the
board of a second

Indirect interlocking directorate- when two


corporations have directors who serve on the board of a
third firm

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Board of Directors

Organization of the Board


• Size
– Determined by charter and bylaws
• The average large, publicly held U.S. firm has 10
directors on its board. The average small,
privately held company has 4-5 members. In
Japan, 14; Non-Japan Asia, 9; Germany, 16;
UK, 10; and France, 11.

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Nomination and Election of Board Members

97% of U.S. boards use nominating


committees to identify potential board
members

Staggered boards- only a portion of board members


stand for re-election when directors serve more than
one year terms

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Nomination and Election of Board Members
Criteria for a good director include:
1. Willingness to challenge management when necessary
2. Special expertise that is important to the company
3. Available for outside meetings to advise management
4. Expertise on global issues
5. Understands the firm’s key technologies and
processes
6. Brings external contacts that are potentially valuable
to the firm
7. Has detailed knowledge of the firm’s industry
8. Has high visibility in their field
9. Is accomplished at representing the firm to
stakeholders
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Approximately 70% of the top executives of U.S.
publicly held companies hold the dual/double
designation of Chairman and CEO

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Lead Director- is consulted by the Chair/CEO regarding
board affairs and coordinates the annual evaluation of
the CEO

• 96% of U.S. companies that combine the Chairman and


CEO positions had a lead director

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Impact of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act on U.S.
Corporate Governance

Sarbanes Oxley Act 2002- designed to protect


shareholders from excesses and failed oversight of
boards of directors
– Whistleblower procedures
– Improved corporate

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Impact of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act on U.S.
Corporate Governance

• Evaluating Governance
– Rating agencies
– S&P Corporate Governance Scoring System
• Avoiding Governance Improvements
– Multiple classes of stock
– Public to private ownership
– Controlled companies

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Trends in Corporate Governance
1. Boards shaping company strategy
2. Institutional investors active on boards
3. Shareholder demands that directors and top
management own significant stock
4. More involvement of non-affiliated outside directors
5. Increased representation of women and minorities
6. Boards evaluating individual directors
7. Smaller boards
8. Splitting the Chairman and CEO positions
9. Shareholders may begin to nominate board members
10. Society expects boards to balance profitability with
social needs of society

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Responsibilities of Top Management

Executive leadership is the directing of activities toward


the accomplishment of corporate objectives. Sets the
tone for the entire corporation

Strategic vision- description of what the company is


capable of becoming

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Responsibilities of Top Management

Transformational Leaders provide change and


movement in an organization by providing a vision for that
change.

Characteristics include:

• CEO articulates a strategic vision for the corporation


• CEO presents a role for others to identify with and to
follow
• CEO communicates high performance standards and also
show confidence in the followers’ abilities to meet these
standards

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Managing the Strategic Planning Process
Strategic planning staff- supports both top management
and the business units in the strategic planning process

Major responsibilities include:

• Identifying and analyzing company-wide strategic issues,


and suggesting corporate strategic alternatives to top
management
• Work as facilitators with business units to guide them
through the strategic planning process

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1. When does a corporation need a board of directors?
2. Who should and should not serve on a board of directors?
3. Should a CEO be allowed to serve on another company’s
board of directors?
4. What would be the result if the only insider on a corporation’s
board were the CEO?
5. Should all CEOs be transformational leaders? Would you like
to work for a transformational leader?

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Styles of Corporate Governance

Entrepreneurship Partnership
High Management Management

Degree of Chaos Marionette


Involvement low Management Management
By top
management
High
Low

Degree of involvement by board of directors

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Styles of Corporate Governance
• Chaos Management
• When both the board of directors and top management
have little involvement in the strategic management
process.
• The board waits for top management to bring it
proposals.
• Top management is operationally oriented and
continues to carry out strategies, policies, and programs
specified by the founding entrepreneur who died
years ago.
• There is no strategic management being done here.

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Styles of Corporate Governance
• Entrepreneurship Management
• A corporation with an uninvolved board of
directors but a highly involved top management
has entrepreneurship management.
• The board is willing to be used as a rubber
stamp for top management's decisions.
• The CEO, operating alone or with a team,
dominates the corporation and its strategic
decisions.

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Styles of Corporate Governance
• Marionette\dummy Management
• Probably the rarest form of strategic management style,
• Marionette management occurs when the board of
directors is deeply involved in strategic decision making,
but top management is primarily concerned with
operations.
• Such a style evolves when a board is composed of key
stockholders who refuse to delegate strategic decision
making to the president.
• This style also occurs when a board fires a CEO but is
slow to find a replacement.
• Marionette Management occurred at Winnebago
Industries when the company's Board of Directors,
chaired by its founder, 72-year-old John K. Hanson, took
away Ronald Haugen's title as chief executive officer,
but left him as company president.
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Social Responsibility

Broader responsibility:

• Private corporation has responsibilities


to society that extend beyond making a
profit.

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Social Responsibility
Friedman’s Traditional View

“There is one and only one social


responsibility of business – to use its
resources and engage in activities
designed to increase its profits…”

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Social Responsibility
Carroll’s Four Responsibilities

• Economic: produce goods and services


of value to society.
• Legal: abide by law, avoid
discrimination.
• Ethical: respect beliefs in society.
• Discretionary/flexible :pure voluntary
obligations.
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Responsibilities of Business

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Social Responsibility
Benefits
•Environmental concerns may enable
the firm to charge premium prices and
Ben & Jerry’s gain brand loyalty

•Trustworthiness may help generate


enduring relationships with suppliers
Maytag and distributors without spending time
and money policing contracts

•Can attract outstanding employees


Procter &
Gamble who prefer working for a responsible
firm

•More likely to attract capital from


Rubbermaid investors who view reputable
companies as desirable
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Discussion
• What is the relationship between
corporate governance and social
responsibility?
The board of directors is in a unique
position to view the corporation as a
whole and to evaluate management's
performance in terms of stakeholder
criteria.
Social Responsibility: Balancing
Commitments to Stakeholders
Stakeholders: Groups, individuals, and organizations that
are directly affected by the practices of an organization

Employees Investors

Customers CORPORATION Suppliers

Local
Communities
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Social Responsibility
• It refers to the way in which a business tries to balance its
commitments to certain groups and individuals in its social
environment.
• Customers: Treat customers fairly and honestly (Examples
of companies with excellent reputations in this area: L.L.
Bean, Nordstrom, Dell Computer Corporation)
• Employees: Treat employees fairly, with respect for their
dignity and basic human needs (Examples of companies with
excellent reputations in this area: 3M, Southwest Airlines)
• Investors: Manage financial resources honestly and openly
• Suppliers: Seek mutually beneficial partnerships
• Local Communities: Minimize damage and maximize
contributions to local communities

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Reasons for Unethical
Behavior
Moral Relativism

– Morality is relative to some


personal, social or cultural
standard and that there is no
method for deciding whether one
decision is better than another.

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Social Responsibility
Kohlberg’s Levels of
Moral Development

– Preconventional Level
– Concern for self

– Conventional\conservative Level
– Consideration of laws and norms

– Principled Level
– Adherence to internal moral code
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Social Responsibility

Code of Ethics:
– Specifies how an organization
expects its employees to behave
while on the job.

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What Is Ethical Behavior?
Ethics: Right and wrong, good
and bad, in actions that affect
others. shaped by personal
values and morals

Ethical Behavior: Conforming


to generally accepted ethical
norms.
Business ethics: Ethical or
unethical behaviors of
managers and employers of
an organization.

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Discussion
• Identify examples of ethical and unethical business
practices.
– Ethical Business Practices: Examples: Donating a
percentage of profits to charity and community causes (Ben &
Jerry’s donates 7-1/2% of pre-tax profits, and Levi Strauss
donates 2.4% of pre-tax profits to a variety of causes),
encouraging employees to engage in volunteer work using
paid work-release time (Walt Disney’s VoluntEARS program),
recycling (McDonald’s has a far-reaching environmental
protection program).
– Unethical Business Practices: Examples: Forwarding
“marketing research” results to sales people, excessive
violence in video games, and of course all forms of illegal
behavior (e.g. deliberately selling cigarettes to minors).

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Assessing Ethical Behavior
Approaches to Ethical Behavior
– Utility: Does a particular act optimize the
benefits to those who are affected by it? Do
all relevant parties receive “fair” benefits?
– Individual Rights: Does the act respect the
rights of all individuals involved?
– Justice: Is the act consistent with what’s
fair? E.g., level of salary, working hours.
– Caring: Is the act consistent with people’s
responsibilities to each other?
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Social Responsibility

Approaches to Ethical Behavior

• Categorical imperatives\crucial
“golden rules”
Not restrict others behavior

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Responsibility Toward the
Environment
• Encompasses
three main areas:
1. Air pollution
2. Water pollution
3. Land pollution
– Toxic\deadly
waste
– Recycling

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Responsibility Toward
Customers
Consumer Rights

Unfair Pricing

Ethics in Advertising
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Responsibility Toward
Employees
• Legal and social commitments: Legally,
companies are required to refrain from
discrimination against any worker based
on race, gender, religion, nationality or
other irrelevant factors. Ethically, many
people feel that companies should ensure
that the workplace is physically and
socially safe.
• How far should companies extend
themselves to help employees who are
laid
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Responsibility Toward Investors

• Improper financial management:


• Offenses are typically unethical, rather than illegal. Examples include
excessive salaries, and lavish\plentiful or frivolous perks\bonus (e.g.
regular corporate “retreats” to exotic\interesting island resorts).
• Check kiting:
• Responsibility towards investors has several components:
• Illegal practice of writing checks against money that has not yet arrived at
the bank on which it is drawn.
• Insider trading:
• Illegal practice of using confidential information to gain from the purchase
or sale of stocks.
• Misrepresentation of finances:
• Typically, this takes the form of overly optimistic projections of earnings.

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Review
• What are the Carroll’s four social
Responsibilities of companies? Is there a
consensus on the concept of social
responsibilities? What is the relationship
between social responsibility and ethics?
Try to be practical in your answer.

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Discussion
• Should all CEOs be transformation leaders? Would you
like to work for a transformational leader?
• According to the text, top management must successfully
handle two responsibilities that are crucial to the effective
strategic management of the corporation: (1) provide
executive leadership and a strategic vision and (2) manage
the strategic planning process. The successful CEOs often
provide this executive leadership by taking on many of the
characteristics of the transformation leader by
communicating a clear strategic vision, demonstrating a
strong passion for the company, and communicating clear
directions to others. Such transformational leaders, like Bill
Gates at Microsoft, Steve Jobs at Apple, and Anita Roddick
at The Body Shop, are able to command respect and
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