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PLANNING A GAGE

R&R STUDY

D. M. Schneider
GAGE R&R STUDY

A Gage R&R study is a part of Measurement


System Analysis. The purpose of a gage R&R
study is to identify and quantify the sources of
variability that can affect the measurement
process.

D. M. Schneider
PLANNING A GAGE R&R STUDY

In order to assure that the results of a gage R&R


study are worthwhile, careful and extensive
planning is needed.

Failure to give consideration to the many


variables that may influence a gage may cause
the results of the study to be compromised or
misleading.

D. M. Schneider
BASIC CONSIDERATIONS

• Acceptance Criteria
• Written, Defined Test Method
• Number of Operators
• Homogeneity of Sample
• Sample Preparation
• Calibration
• Test Environment

D. M. Schneider
ADDITIONAL CONSIDERATIONS

• Length of Study
• Number of Gages
• Number of Materials
• Number of Replications

D. M. Schneider
ACCEPTANCE CRITERIA

• Amount of accuracy and precision


desired.

• Amount of product specification


consumed by the total measuring
error.

• Total error includes precision,


repeatability and reproducibility.

D. M. Schneider
WRITTEN, DEFINED TEST METHOD

• Insure that there is a well written test


procedure.

• Interpretation of steps and activities


must be clear to all.

• The test method must prescribe


within the method all setups, settings,
activities, calibrations, etc. (i.e., times,
temperatures, pressures, reagent purities,
etc.).

D. M. Schneider
NUMBER OF OPERATORS
• No two operators do a task exactly the
same.
• People differ in dexterity, reaction time,
color sensitivity, interpolation in scale
reading, etc.
• The study should involve more than two
operators especially for measuring systems
that are complex.
• Select operators who are trained and
normally use the gage.
• Generally, no more than 5 operators.
D. M. Schneider
HOMOGENEITY OF MATERIAL

• Minimizing the problem of sample


variation, i.e.,
• bulk samples should be blended
• liquids should be thoroughly stirred
• a specific spot marked on the part

• Individual samples should be homogeneous


– the study is to determine the variability
of the gage and not the actual process.

D. M. Schneider
SAMPLE PREPARATION
• For some measuring systems, sample
preparation is important to understanding
gage error.

• For the situation where sample preparation


is not to be included in the study then one
individual must prepare all samples.

• For the situation where sample preparation


is to be included in the study then all
individuals must prepare enough samples
for the other individuals in the study to
measure.
D. M. Schneider
CALIBRATION
• One of the variables associated with test
equipment is its state of calibration or lack
of calibration.
• The test procedure must specify the
frequency of calibration and a routine
calibration should not occur during the study.
• If non routine calibrations are to occur
during the study then questions like who
will do it, when will it done, etc. must be
answered.
• Verify that the gage is currently calibrated.
D. M. Schneider
TEST ENVIRONMENT

• The properties of many materials are


sensitive to ambient conditions.
• The performance of many measuring
systems are sensitive to ambient conditions.
• Since ambient conditions cannot be
controlled perfectly, acceptable tolerance
ranges for ambient conditions must be
defined.
• The gage R&R study should be conducted
under the same conditions where the gage is
normally used (or will normally be used).
D. M. Schneider
LENGTH OF STUDY

• Operator differences, calibration and


ambient conditions may change with time.

• Actual day to day variations should be


included in the study in order to estimate
the effect on the test equipment.

• The number days will depend on the


stability of all the variables that can affect
the test equipment.

D. M. Schneider
NUMBER OF GAGES

• Even two pieces of test equipment made


by the same manufacturer are not identical.

• For measuring systems such as


micrometers, include 2-3 in the study.

• When more than one measuring system


is included in the study, make sure that
each operator measures each sample/part
using each measuring system.

D. M. Schneider
NUMBER OF SAMPLES

• Does the measuring system have the same


accuracy and precision in the entire range of
operation (usability)?

• If the measuring system is to be used in a


wide range (i.e., narrow width to wide width)
then the samples/parts used in the study must
span this range of use.

• 5-10 samples/parts spanning the range of


use is considered acceptable.

D. M. Schneider
NUMBER OF REPLICATION

• What is the inherent variation of the


actual gage?

• In a very short time frame, how close in


agreement are repeated measures from
this gage?
• In its purest sense, replications help
estimate the pure precision of the gage
(i.e., minimal opportunity for special
causes to affect the gage).
• 2-3 replications is usually sufficient.
D. M. Schneider
TYPES OF STUDIES:
VERY SHORT TERM - BASIC STUDY -
ONE OPERATOR
RESULT Mat A Mat B Mat C
1 X X X
2 X X X
3 X X X
4 X X X
5 X X X

Note: Each x is a replication


D. M. Schneider
TYPES OF STUDIES
SHORT TERM - BASIC STUDY
Mat A Day 1 Day 2 Day 3
Oper 1 x,x,x x,x,x x,x,x
Oper 2 x,x,x x,x,x x,x,x
Oper 3 x,x,x x,x,x x,x,x
Oper 4 x,x,x x,x,x x,x,x
Mat B Day 1 Day 2 Day 3
Oper 1 x,x,x x,x,x x,x,x
Oper 2 x,x,x x,x,x x,x,x
Oper 3 x,x,x x,x,x x,x,x
Oper 4 x,x,x x,x,x x,x,x
Mat C Day 1 Day 2 Day 3
Oper 1 x,x,x x,x,x x,x,x
Oper 2 x,x,x x,x,x x,x,x
Oper 3 x,x,x x,x,x x,x,x
Oper 4 x,x,x x,x,x x,x,x
Note: Each x is a replication
D. M. Schneider
TYPES OF STUDIES:
LONG TERM - BASIC STUDY
Mat A Day 1 Day 2 ... Day N
Oper 1 x,x,x x,x,x ... x,x,x
Oper 2 x,x,x x,x,x ... x,x,x
Oper 3 x,x,x x,x,x ... x,x,x
Oper 4 x,x,x x,x,x ... x,x,x
Mat B Day 1 Day 2 ... Day N
Oper 1 x,x,x x,x,x ... x,x,x
Oper 2 x,x,x x,x,x ... x,x,x
Oper 3 x,x,x x,x,x ... x,x,x
Oper 4 x,x,x x,x,x ... x,x,x
Mat C Day 1 Day 2 ... Day N
Oper 1 x,x,x x,x,x ... x,x,x
Oper 2 x,x,x x,x,x ... x,x,x
Oper 3 x,x,x x,x,x ... x,x,x
Oper 4 x,x,x x,x,x ... x,x,x
Note: Each x is a replication
D. M. Schneider