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Flexural analysis and design of Beams

RISALPUR

2

FLEXURAL BEHAVIOUR OF BEAMS

ASSUMPTIONS REGARDING FLEXURAL BEHAVIOR

Following assumptions are considered to simplify the

flexural behaviour of beams, to study the basic

concepts and to derive the basic formulae for

analysis and design.

Plane section remains plane after bending. This

means that the unit strains in a beam above and

below the neutral axis are proportional to the distance

from that axis.

3

FLEXURAL BEHAVIOUR OF BEAMS

ASSUMPTIONS REGARDING FLEXURAL BEHAVIOR

There exist a perfect bond between concrete and

steel and hence the strain in steel is exactly equal to

strain in surrounding concrete. This assumption may

not be exactly satisfied after cracking.

Hook’s law is applicable. The stresses in concrete

and steel may be estimated from corresponding

strain using stress strain curve and modulus of

elasticity.

4

FLEXURAL BEHAVIOUR OF BEAMS

The external forces acting at any cross section are

balanced by the internal resistive forces. This

condition remains valid up to failure of structure.

After the appearance of first hairline or visible crack,

the concrete strength in tension is neglected.

The stress strain relationship of concrete and steel

are simplified to study the complex interaction of two

materials in reinforced concrete member, particularly

closer to the collapse when the materials are in their

inelastic ranges.

An appropriate margin of safety can be assured by

making this strength larger than the largest load that

can be expected during lifetime of the structure.

5

BEHAVIOUR OF REINFORCED CONCRETE BEAM

Consider the reinforced concrete beam shown in fig.

3.2 (a). When the load on such a beam is gradually

Increased from zero to the magnitude that will cause

the beam to fail, several different stages of behaviour

can be clearly distinguished.

At low loads, as long as the maximum tensile stress in

concrete is smaller than the modulus of rupture, the

entire concrete is effective in resisting stresses, in

compression on one side and in tension on the other. In

addition, the reinforcement, deforming the same amount

as the adjacent concrete is also subject to tensile

stresses. At this stage, all stresses are small and

proportional to strain. Distribution of strains and stresses

in concrete and steel over the depth of the section is shown

in fig. 3.2 (c) 6

7

Fig. 3.2 Behaviour of Reinforced Concrete Beam under Increasing Loads

8

When the load is further increased, the tensile

strength of concrete is soon reached and tension

cracks develop. These cracks propagate upwards

or close to the level of neutral plane, which in turn

shifts upward with progressive cracking. The

general shape and distribution of these tension

cracks is shown in fig. 3.2 (d). The width of these

cracks is very small (hair line cracks) and not

objectionable from view point or appearance. At a

cracked section, say at section a-a the concrete

does not transmit any tensile stress and the steel is

called upon to resist entire tension.

9

Fig. 3.2 Behaviour of Reinforced Concrete Beam under Increasing Loads

10

At moderate loads, if the concrete stress does not

exceed approximately f’c/2, the stress and strain

continue to be closely proportional. The distribution

of strains and stresses at or near a cracked section

is that shown in fig. (e).

When the load is still further increased, the stress

and strain rise correspondingly and are no longer

proportional. Fig.3.2 (f) shows the distribution of

strains and stresses close to ultimate load. Beam

will fail either by tension yielding of steel (fs=fy) or

by crushing of concrete at outer compression fibre

(єc=0.003).The nonlinear relation between stresses

and strains is that given by the concrete stress

strain curve. 11

12

NOTATIONS

As = Area of steel on tension side

b = width of the beam

d = Distance of centroid of tension steel from

extreme compression fibre

h = total depth of member

f’c = specified compressive strength of concrete

fy = Yield strength of steel

jd = lever arm between comp and tensile force

c = depth of neutral axis from extreme comp fibre

ϵc .ϵs =Strain in concrete / steel, ϵcu =0.003

ρ = steel ratio =As/bd

Cc/T = Resultant compressive /tensile force

13

14

EQUIVALENT RECTANGULAR STRESS DISTR.

In 1937, C.S. Whitney, proposed the replacement of

stress distribution by an equivalent rect. stress

distribution at ultimate load.

16

When the load carrying capacity of the beam is

reached, failure can be caused in one of the two

ways.

Compression controlled failure

17

Tension Controlled failure. If relatively moderate

amount of steel is used, at some value of load, the

steel will reach its yield point. At that stress, the

reinforcement yields suddenly and stretches a large

amount (see stress strain curve of steel) and the

tension cracks in the concrete widen visibly and

propagate upward, with simultaneous significant

deflection of beam. When this happens, the strain in

the remaining compression zone of the concrete

increase to such a degree that crushing of concrete

occurs, causing “secondary compression failure” at a

load only slightly larger than that which caused the

steel to yield. Such yield failure is gradual and is

preceded by visible sign of distress, such as widening

and lengthening of cracks and marked increase in

18

deflection.

Compression controlled failure

If large amount of reinforcement is used, the

compressive strength of concrete may be exhausted

before steel starts yielding. Concrete will fail by

crushing when strain becomes large enough to

disrupt the integrity of concrete – normally in the

range of 0.003 - 0.004. Compression failure of

concrete is sudden, of an almost explosive nature

and without warning. For this reason it is always

desirable to proportion a beam such that if

overloaded, failure should be initiated by yielding of

steel and not by crushing of concrete.

19

Balanced strain condition.

A balanced strain condition exist at a cross section

when steel strain is equal to єy and the strain in

concrete simultaneously reaches єu=0.003.

From similar triangles, єc

c/d = єc/(єc+ єy)

c = єc.d/(єc+ єy) ----- (I) c

for equilibrium, T= C

d

As.fy=ρb.b.d.fy=0.85f’c.a.b

=0.85f’c. β1c.b

put value of c from (I) above, єy

ρb= 0.85 β1.f’c/fy.(єc/ єc+ єy)

For Es= 29x106 psi and єc= 0.003, we get

ρb= 0.85 β1.f’c/fy.(87000/87000+ fy)

20

Types of Sections Based on Flexural Behaviour

The sections may be classified into three types

depending upon how much ductility is provided by

them. The strength reduction factor ɸ, is accordingly

different for these types of sections.

Tension Controlled Section. The section in which

the net tensile strain in the extreme tension steel is

equal to or greater than 0.005, when the

corresponding concrete strain in compression just

reaches a strain of 0.003.

Let dt= depth of steel closest to tension face

from the compression face.

And ϵt= strain in steel closest to tension face on

outer side of bar.

21

22

ϵt/0.003 = (dt-c)/c Єc=0.003

ϵt= 0.003 (dt-c)/c

c

If this strain is greater than

or equal to 0.005, the section dt

is tension controlled. dt-c

0.003 (dt-c)/c ≥ 0.005 єt

0.003dt/c ≥0.005+0.003

dt/c ≥8/3 or

c/dt ≤ 3/8

The net tensile strain does not include strain due to

prestress, creep, shrinkage or temperature.

23

Compression Controlled Section. Sections where

net tensile strain in extreme tension steel is less

than or equal to its yield strain, ϵy, when the

concrete strain in compression just reaches a strain

of 0.003. ϵy may be taken equal to 0.002 for grade

60 steel.

0.003(dt-c)/c ≤ ϵy

c/dt ≥ 0.003/(ϵy +0.003) ≥ 0.60

Transition Section. When the tensile strain in

extreme tension steel is between the limiting values

for compression controlled and tension controlled

sections, the section behaves as a transition

between the two types of sections. The ɸ factor in

such cases is varied linearly for smooth transition

from compression controlled to tension controlled

section. 24

For grade 60 steel the equation can be simplified as

follows.

ɸ = 0.483 + 83.33 ϵt

25

26

UNDER – REINFORCED SECTION OR TENSION

FAILURE.

In a reinforced concrete beam, the failure that is

initiated by yielding of tension steel is known as

tension failure and the section is called under –

reinforced section. It is further divided into a tension

controlled section and transition section. The

capacity of such a section is derived below.

● Maximum strain in concrete = 0.003

● Extreme fibre concrete stress = 0.85 f’c

● Stress in steel = fy

● Strain in steel = єs > єy = fy/Es 27

28

Refer to figure

C = T »0.85 f’c.b.a = As.fy a C

a= As.fy/(0.85 f’c.b) ---(I)

Mn= 0.85 f’c.b.a (d - a/2) ---(II) d d-a/2

Mn=As.fy(d - a/2) ---(III)

put value of “a” from (I) in (III) T

Mn=As.fy{d-As.fy/(2x0.85 f’c.b)} ---- (IV)

put As=ρ.b.d in eqn (IV), we get

Mn= ρ.b.d.fy {d- ρ.b.d .fy/(1.7 f’c.b)}

Mn = ρ.b.d2.fy{1-0.588ρ.fy/f’c} ----- (V)

Mn = R.b.d2 ----- (VI)

29

30

For perfect and most economical design, Mu=ɸ.Mn.

Where ɸ= Strength (capacity) reduction factor and

its value is 0.90 when tensile steel strain is ≥0.005.

Minimum depth of rectangular section. It may be

determined by calculating the moment of resistance

when ϵt=0.005. It is also approx valid for ϵt=0.004.

At ϵt ≥ 0.005, a= ⅜β1.d

Mu= ɸMn=0.9x0.85 f’c.b.a(d-a/2)

=0.765 f’c.b(0.375 β1.d){d-(0.375 β1.d/2}

For f’c ≤ 4000 psi, β1=0.85

=0.205 f’c.b.d2

dmin=√Mu/(0.205 f’c.b).

If effective depth of beam is selected ≥dmin, the

beam will behave as under-reinforced section and ρ

will be lesser than ρmax. Total depth= dmin+2.5” 31

OVER-REINFORCED OR COMPRESSION FAILURE

A reinforced concrete beam that would fail by

crushing of concrete first rather than by yielding of

tension steel is called over-reinforced beam.

Concrete crushing is assumed to occur at extreme

concrete strain of 0.003. The stress in steel remains

less than yield stress, fy. The crushing of concrete

occurs suddenly and chunks of concrete in the

maximum compression region are blown off as the

load exceeds the ultimate capacity. The over-

reinforced or compression failure is a sudden failure

and without warning. A beam should never be

designed as over-reinforced. However, for the

analysis of accidental over-reinforced beam, the

capacity may be determined by formula derived.

32

Extreme fibre concrete strain=0.003

“ “ “ stress =0.85 f’c

Stress in steel, fs <fy and єs<єy

As strain in steel is unknown, consider the strain

distribution diagram before failure.

єs / 0.003 =(d - c) / c Єu=0.003

єs = 0.003(d-c)/c

fs=Es.єs=0.003.Es.(d-c)/c c

N.A

=0.003.Es(d-a/β1)/(a/β1)

=0.003.Es.(β1d- a)/a --- (I)

d

d-c

C=0.85 f’c.b.a

єs

T=As.fs= As.0.003.Es.(β1d- a)/a

Equate C =T

0.85 f’c.b.a= As.0.003.Es.(β1d- a)/a 33

=(0.85 f’c.b.a2)/(0.003As.Es) =β1.d – a

=(0.85 f’c.b.a2)/(0.003As.Es) +a - β1.d =0

Put As= ρbd and multiply eqn by d, we get,

{0.85 f’c/(0.003Es.ρ)}a2+ad - β1.d2=0 (Es=29x106)

{0.85 f’c/(87000.ρ)}a2+ad - β1.d2=0

The only unknown in the equation is “a” and the eqn

can be solved to find the value of “a”. The nominal

moment capacity can now be determined.

Mn=C x (d-a/2)= 0.85 f’c.b.a (d-a/2).

Mu =ɸ .Mn

The value of ɸ = 0.65 for over-reinforced section.

34

Minimum reinforcement

in beams

35

MAXIMUM STEEL RATIO

To make sure that every flexural member fails by

yielding of steel by sufficient warning before failure,

ACI Code require that if axial load on the member is

less than 0.1f’c.Ag, the net tensile strain at nominal

strength should not be less than 0.004 i.e. ϵt ≥ 0.004

which means

0.003 (dt-c)/c ≥ 0.004

(dt/c)-1 ≥4/3 or dt/c ≥7/3 or

c/dt≤3/7 a/dt≤ β1x3/7 ----- (i)

For singly reinforced beams with one layer of

steel reinforcement, dt=d

For C = T, 0.85 f’c.b.a=As.fy=ρb.d.fy

ρ = 0.85(f’c/fy).a/d=0.85(f’c/fy).β1.3/7 36

ρmax=0.364 β1.f’c/fy

equal to 0.005 to give some margin against the

possibility of being below the strain limit of 0.004,

while steel bars are selected. Also, due to reduced

factor of safety at a strain of 0.004, no considerable

economy is obtained. The maximum steel ratio for

singly reinforced section with limiting strain of 0.005

may be found as under;

єt ≥ 0.005 (from strain diagram)

0.003x(dt-c)/c ≥ 0.005

(dt/c) -1 ≥ 5/3, dt/c ≥ 8/3

(c/dt) ≤ ⅜ or (a/dt) ≤ β1. ⅜

37

For singly reinforced beam with one layer of

steel, dt=d

ρ=.085(f’c/fy).(a/d)

≤ 0.85β1x⅜xf’c/fy

section

The above equation will be preferred.

38

39

40

Net tensile Strain and c/dt Ratio

41

Selection of Steel Bars For Beams. The following

points should be kept in mind while selecting

number and size of bars for the given area of steel.

• As provided ≥ As required.

• There should be at least two bars, one in each

corner.

• A smaller bar size, for given area, is preferable

because of ease of cutting, placing and crack

control.

42

• If more area of steel is required, steel bars may

be bundled into say three bar bundle or four bar

bundle.

43

44

45

46

47

Concrete Cover to Steel Reinforcement. A minimum

clear concrete cover to the outer most steel (may be

steel stirrup or tie) is required for following reasons.

● To protect the reinforcement from weather and

other effects, say from corrosion.

● To provide sufficient bond strength between steel

and concrete.

● To protect steel against fire, up to certain extent

and to improve fire rating of the structure.

● To reduce abrasion and wear of steel.

Steel bars in the beams should be placed 2½”- 3”

from the top or bottom surface to furnish at least

1½” clear concrete cover. See figure for details.

48

49

Requirements for Concrete Cover in Beams and Slabs

50

Size of the Beam

It is selected keeping in mind the following

considerations.

As a rule of thumb, depth of beam should be ℓ/12.

It also satisfies the deflection criteria (except for

cantilever beam).

In most cases (singly reinforced beams), the depth

of beam should be such that maximum steel ratio

permitted by the ACI Code is not exceeded. It can

be insured if provided depth is more than dmin.

Shear force can also dictate beam size in certain

cases.

51

Depth of rectangular beams should be multiple of

2” or 3”. In T-beams the web depth should satisfy

the code criteria.

Beams are economical in depth to width ratio of 1.5

to 2.5 (e.g. for 12” width of beam the depth range

of 18” to 30” is economical).

The economical span range of beams is normally

between 30 to 35 ft.

The number of different sizes of beams on a project

should be kept minimum.

Width of beam should be equal to or less than

width of column.

52

MINIMUM DEPTH OF BEAMS FROM DEFLECTION

CRITERIA.

In order to keep the deflection within limits, we

have to find the deflection of the reinforced concrete

beam using code formulae and compare them with

the allowable limits. If the deflection is more than

allowable limit, the section has to be revised.

As an alternate, the depth of the beams should be

kept more than the limits prescribed in ACI Code.

53

54

ANALYSIS OF SINGLY REINFORCED SECTION

1. Calculate the depth of neutral axis assuming the

section as under - reinforced.

a = As.fy/(0.85 f’c.b)

c = a/β1

2. Calculate the steel strain. Also calculate єt, if

different. (or check c/dt ratio)

ϵs= 0.003(d-c)/c =0.003(β1d-a)/a

ϵt= 0.003(dt-c)/c =0.003(β1dt- a)/a

If єt ≥єy.The section is under reinforced as

assumed, go to step no.3.

If єt < єy it will be a compression failure.

Recalculate the value of “a” from following eqn.

{0.85 f’c/(87000.ρ)}a2+ad - β1.d2=0

55

3. Determine the value of strength reduction factor, ɸ

depending upon the value of єt.

єt ≥ 0.005 ɸ=0.90

єt ≤ єy ɸ=0.65

0.002 < єt < 0.005 --- Use transition formula.

ɸ=0.65+{0.25/(0.005 - єy)}x(єt - єy)

ɸ = 0.483 +83.33 ϵt. ------- For grade 60 steel.

4. Calculate the flexural capacity , ɸ Mn, as under.

ɸ Mn= ɸ As. fy (d - a/2) For under reinforced sec.

ɸ Mn= ɸ 0.85 f’c.b.a (d - a/2) For compression

= ɸ As.fs.(d - a/2) controlled section

56

• For a given Mu calculate “R” and “ρ” (from table

A5.2 or following equation, table is preferred)

• Check for minimum and maximum reinforcement

• Then As = ρ b d

• Provide appropriate amount of reinforcement and

check for minimum and maximum spacing of reinf.

• Check for TCS

• Calculate capacity of the beam to ensure it is more

than the applied bending moment.

57

Approximate equations

Similarly for analysis

Mu = ɸ Mn = 4 As d

58

59

60

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