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## CE 806 – RCM - LECTURE 3

Flexural analysis and design of Beams

## MILITARY COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING

RISALPUR

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FLEXURAL BEHAVIOUR OF BEAMS
ASSUMPTIONS REGARDING FLEXURAL BEHAVIOR
Following assumptions are considered to simplify the
flexural behaviour of beams, to study the basic
concepts and to derive the basic formulae for
analysis and design.
Plane section remains plane after bending. This
means that the unit strains in a beam above and
below the neutral axis are proportional to the distance
from that axis.

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FLEXURAL BEHAVIOUR OF BEAMS
ASSUMPTIONS REGARDING FLEXURAL BEHAVIOR
There exist a perfect bond between concrete and
steel and hence the strain in steel is exactly equal to
strain in surrounding concrete. This assumption may
not be exactly satisfied after cracking.
Hook’s law is applicable. The stresses in concrete
and steel may be estimated from corresponding
strain using stress strain curve and modulus of
elasticity.

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FLEXURAL BEHAVIOUR OF BEAMS
The external forces acting at any cross section are
balanced by the internal resistive forces. This
condition remains valid up to failure of structure.
After the appearance of first hairline or visible crack,
the concrete strength in tension is neglected.
The stress strain relationship of concrete and steel
are simplified to study the complex interaction of two
materials in reinforced concrete member, particularly
closer to the collapse when the materials are in their
inelastic ranges.
An appropriate margin of safety can be assured by
making this strength larger than the largest load that
can be expected during lifetime of the structure.
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BEHAVIOUR OF REINFORCED CONCRETE BEAM
Consider the reinforced concrete beam shown in fig.
Increased from zero to the magnitude that will cause
the beam to fail, several different stages of behaviour
can be clearly distinguished.
 At low loads, as long as the maximum tensile stress in
concrete is smaller than the modulus of rupture, the
entire concrete is effective in resisting stresses, in
compression on one side and in tension on the other. In
addition, the reinforcement, deforming the same amount
as the adjacent concrete is also subject to tensile
stresses. At this stage, all stresses are small and
proportional to strain. Distribution of strains and stresses
in concrete and steel over the depth of the section is shown
in fig. 3.2 (c) 6
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Fig. 3.2 Behaviour of Reinforced Concrete Beam under Increasing Loads
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When the load is further increased, the tensile
strength of concrete is soon reached and tension
cracks develop. These cracks propagate upwards
or close to the level of neutral plane, which in turn
shifts upward with progressive cracking. The
general shape and distribution of these tension
cracks is shown in fig. 3.2 (d). The width of these
cracks is very small (hair line cracks) and not
objectionable from view point or appearance. At a
cracked section, say at section a-a the concrete
does not transmit any tensile stress and the steel is
called upon to resist entire tension.

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Fig. 3.2 Behaviour of Reinforced Concrete Beam under Increasing Loads
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At moderate loads, if the concrete stress does not
exceed approximately f’c/2, the stress and strain
continue to be closely proportional. The distribution
of strains and stresses at or near a cracked section
is that shown in fig. (e).
When the load is still further increased, the stress
and strain rise correspondingly and are no longer
proportional. Fig.3.2 (f) shows the distribution of
strains and stresses close to ultimate load. Beam
will fail either by tension yielding of steel (fs=fy) or
by crushing of concrete at outer compression fibre
(єc=0.003).The nonlinear relation between stresses
and strains is that given by the concrete stress
strain curve. 11
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NOTATIONS
As = Area of steel on tension side
b = width of the beam
d = Distance of centroid of tension steel from
extreme compression fibre
h = total depth of member
f’c = specified compressive strength of concrete
fy = Yield strength of steel
jd = lever arm between comp and tensile force
c = depth of neutral axis from extreme comp fibre
ϵc .ϵs =Strain in concrete / steel, ϵcu =0.003
ρ = steel ratio =As/bd
Cc/T = Resultant compressive /tensile force

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EQUIVALENT RECTANGULAR STRESS DISTR.
In 1937, C.S. Whitney, proposed the replacement of
stress distribution by an equivalent rect. stress

## Actual and Equivalent Stress Distribution 15

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When the load carrying capacity of the beam is
reached, failure can be caused in one of the two
ways.

## Tension controlled failure

Compression controlled failure

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Tension Controlled failure. If relatively moderate
amount of steel is used, at some value of load, the
steel will reach its yield point. At that stress, the
reinforcement yields suddenly and stretches a large
amount (see stress strain curve of steel) and the
tension cracks in the concrete widen visibly and
propagate upward, with simultaneous significant
deflection of beam. When this happens, the strain in
the remaining compression zone of the concrete
increase to such a degree that crushing of concrete
occurs, causing “secondary compression failure” at a
load only slightly larger than that which caused the
steel to yield. Such yield failure is gradual and is
preceded by visible sign of distress, such as widening
and lengthening of cracks and marked increase in
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deflection.
Compression controlled failure
If large amount of reinforcement is used, the
compressive strength of concrete may be exhausted
before steel starts yielding. Concrete will fail by
crushing when strain becomes large enough to
disrupt the integrity of concrete – normally in the
range of 0.003 - 0.004. Compression failure of
concrete is sudden, of an almost explosive nature
and without warning. For this reason it is always
desirable to proportion a beam such that if
overloaded, failure should be initiated by yielding of
steel and not by crushing of concrete.

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Balanced strain condition.
A balanced strain condition exist at a cross section
when steel strain is equal to єy and the strain in
concrete simultaneously reaches єu=0.003.
From similar triangles, єc
c/d = єc/(єc+ єy)
c = єc.d/(єc+ єy) ----- (I) c
for equilibrium, T= C
d
As.fy=ρb.b.d.fy=0.85f’c.a.b
=0.85f’c. β1c.b
put value of c from (I) above, єy
ρb= 0.85 β1.f’c/fy.(єc/ єc+ єy)
For Es= 29x106 psi and єc= 0.003, we get
ρb= 0.85 β1.f’c/fy.(87000/87000+ fy)
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Types of Sections Based on Flexural Behaviour
The sections may be classified into three types
depending upon how much ductility is provided by
them. The strength reduction factor ɸ, is accordingly
different for these types of sections.
Tension Controlled Section. The section in which
the net tensile strain in the extreme tension steel is
equal to or greater than 0.005, when the
corresponding concrete strain in compression just
reaches a strain of 0.003.
Let dt= depth of steel closest to tension face
from the compression face.
And ϵt= strain in steel closest to tension face on
outer side of bar.
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ϵt/0.003 = (dt-c)/c Єc=0.003
ϵt= 0.003 (dt-c)/c
c
If this strain is greater than
or equal to 0.005, the section dt
is tension controlled. dt-c
0.003 (dt-c)/c ≥ 0.005 єt

## 0.003 {(dt/c)-1} ≥ 0.005

0.003dt/c ≥0.005+0.003
dt/c ≥8/3 or
c/dt ≤ 3/8
The net tensile strain does not include strain due to
prestress, creep, shrinkage or temperature.
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Compression Controlled Section. Sections where
net tensile strain in extreme tension steel is less
than or equal to its yield strain, ϵy, when the
concrete strain in compression just reaches a strain
of 0.003. ϵy may be taken equal to 0.002 for grade
60 steel.
0.003(dt-c)/c ≤ ϵy
c/dt ≥ 0.003/(ϵy +0.003) ≥ 0.60
Transition Section. When the tensile strain in
extreme tension steel is between the limiting values
for compression controlled and tension controlled
sections, the section behaves as a transition
between the two types of sections. The ɸ factor in
such cases is varied linearly for smooth transition
from compression controlled to tension controlled
section. 24
For grade 60 steel the equation can be simplified as
follows.
ɸ = 0.483 + 83.33 ϵt

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UNDER – REINFORCED SECTION OR TENSION
FAILURE.
In a reinforced concrete beam, the failure that is
initiated by yielding of tension steel is known as
tension failure and the section is called under –
reinforced section. It is further divided into a tension
controlled section and transition section. The
capacity of such a section is derived below.
● Maximum strain in concrete = 0.003
● Extreme fibre concrete stress = 0.85 f’c
● Stress in steel = fy
● Strain in steel = єs > єy = fy/Es 27
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Refer to figure
C = T »0.85 f’c.b.a = As.fy a C
a= As.fy/(0.85 f’c.b) ---(I)
Mn= 0.85 f’c.b.a (d - a/2) ---(II) d d-a/2
Mn=As.fy(d - a/2) ---(III)
put value of “a” from (I) in (III) T
Mn=As.fy{d-As.fy/(2x0.85 f’c.b)} ---- (IV)
put As=ρ.b.d in eqn (IV), we get
Mn= ρ.b.d.fy {d- ρ.b.d .fy/(1.7 f’c.b)}
Mn = ρ.b.d2.fy{1-0.588ρ.fy/f’c} ----- (V)
Mn = R.b.d2 ----- (VI)

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For perfect and most economical design, Mu=ɸ.Mn.
Where ɸ= Strength (capacity) reduction factor and
its value is 0.90 when tensile steel strain is ≥0.005.
Minimum depth of rectangular section. It may be
determined by calculating the moment of resistance
when ϵt=0.005. It is also approx valid for ϵt=0.004.
At ϵt ≥ 0.005, a= ⅜β1.d
Mu= ɸMn=0.9x0.85 f’c.b.a(d-a/2)
=0.765 f’c.b(0.375 β1.d){d-(0.375 β1.d/2}
For f’c ≤ 4000 psi, β1=0.85
=0.205 f’c.b.d2
dmin=√Mu/(0.205 f’c.b).
If effective depth of beam is selected ≥dmin, the
beam will behave as under-reinforced section and ρ
will be lesser than ρmax. Total depth= dmin+2.5” 31
OVER-REINFORCED OR COMPRESSION FAILURE
A reinforced concrete beam that would fail by
crushing of concrete first rather than by yielding of
tension steel is called over-reinforced beam.
Concrete crushing is assumed to occur at extreme
concrete strain of 0.003. The stress in steel remains
less than yield stress, fy. The crushing of concrete
occurs suddenly and chunks of concrete in the
maximum compression region are blown off as the
load exceeds the ultimate capacity. The over-
reinforced or compression failure is a sudden failure
and without warning. A beam should never be
designed as over-reinforced. However, for the
analysis of accidental over-reinforced beam, the
capacity may be determined by formula derived.
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 Extreme fibre concrete strain=0.003
“ “ “ stress =0.85 f’c
Stress in steel, fs <fy and єs<єy
As strain in steel is unknown, consider the strain
distribution diagram before failure.
єs / 0.003 =(d - c) / c Єu=0.003
єs = 0.003(d-c)/c
fs=Es.єs=0.003.Es.(d-c)/c c
N.A
=0.003.Es(d-a/β1)/(a/β1)
=0.003.Es.(β1d- a)/a --- (I)
d
d-c
C=0.85 f’c.b.a
єs
T=As.fs= As.0.003.Es.(β1d- a)/a
Equate C =T
0.85 f’c.b.a= As.0.003.Es.(β1d- a)/a 33
=(0.85 f’c.b.a2)/(0.003As.Es) =β1.d – a
=(0.85 f’c.b.a2)/(0.003As.Es) +a - β1.d =0
Put As= ρbd and multiply eqn by d, we get,
The only unknown in the equation is “a” and the eqn
can be solved to find the value of “a”. The nominal
moment capacity can now be determined.
Mn=C x (d-a/2)= 0.85 f’c.b.a (d-a/2).
Mu =ɸ .Mn
The value of ɸ = 0.65 for over-reinforced section.
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Minimum reinforcement
in beams

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MAXIMUM STEEL RATIO
To make sure that every flexural member fails by
yielding of steel by sufficient warning before failure,
ACI Code require that if axial load on the member is
less than 0.1f’c.Ag, the net tensile strain at nominal
strength should not be less than 0.004 i.e. ϵt ≥ 0.004
which means
0.003 (dt-c)/c ≥ 0.004
(dt/c)-1 ≥4/3 or dt/c ≥7/3 or
c/dt≤3/7 a/dt≤ β1x3/7 ----- (i)
For singly reinforced beams with one layer of
steel reinforcement, dt=d
For C = T, 0.85 f’c.b.a=As.fy=ρb.d.fy
ρ = 0.85(f’c/fy).a/d=0.85(f’c/fy).β1.3/7 36
ρmax=0.364 β1.f’c/fy

## For design, it is better to keep the minimum strain

equal to 0.005 to give some margin against the
possibility of being below the strain limit of 0.004,
while steel bars are selected. Also, due to reduced
factor of safety at a strain of 0.004, no considerable
economy is obtained. The maximum steel ratio for
singly reinforced section with limiting strain of 0.005
may be found as under;
єt ≥ 0.005 (from strain diagram)
0.003x(dt-c)/c ≥ 0.005
(dt/c) -1 ≥ 5/3, dt/c ≥ 8/3
(c/dt) ≤ ⅜ or (a/dt) ≤ β1. ⅜
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For singly reinforced beam with one layer of
steel, dt=d
ρ=.085(f’c/fy).(a/d)
≤ 0.85β1x⅜xf’c/fy

## ρmax= 0.318 β1.f’c/fy. ----- for tension controlled

section
The above equation will be preferred.

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Net tensile Strain and c/dt Ratio
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Selection of Steel Bars For Beams. The following
points should be kept in mind while selecting
number and size of bars for the given area of steel.
• As provided ≥ As required.
• There should be at least two bars, one in each
corner.
• A smaller bar size, for given area, is preferable
because of ease of cutting, placing and crack
control.

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• If more area of steel is required, steel bars may
be bundled into say three bar bundle or four bar
bundle.

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Concrete Cover to Steel Reinforcement. A minimum
clear concrete cover to the outer most steel (may be
steel stirrup or tie) is required for following reasons.
● To protect the reinforcement from weather and
other effects, say from corrosion.
● To provide sufficient bond strength between steel
and concrete.
● To protect steel against fire, up to certain extent
and to improve fire rating of the structure.
● To reduce abrasion and wear of steel.
Steel bars in the beams should be placed 2½”- 3”
from the top or bottom surface to furnish at least
1½” clear concrete cover. See figure for details.

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Requirements for Concrete Cover in Beams and Slabs
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Size of the Beam
It is selected keeping in mind the following
considerations.
As a rule of thumb, depth of beam should be ℓ/12.
It also satisfies the deflection criteria (except for
cantilever beam).
In most cases (singly reinforced beams), the depth
of beam should be such that maximum steel ratio
permitted by the ACI Code is not exceeded. It can
be insured if provided depth is more than dmin.
Shear force can also dictate beam size in certain
cases.

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Depth of rectangular beams should be multiple of
2” or 3”. In T-beams the web depth should satisfy
the code criteria.
Beams are economical in depth to width ratio of 1.5
to 2.5 (e.g. for 12” width of beam the depth range
of 18” to 30” is economical).
The economical span range of beams is normally
between 30 to 35 ft.
The number of different sizes of beams on a project
should be kept minimum.
Width of beam should be equal to or less than
width of column.

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MINIMUM DEPTH OF BEAMS FROM DEFLECTION
CRITERIA.
 In order to keep the deflection within limits, we
have to find the deflection of the reinforced concrete
beam using code formulae and compare them with
the allowable limits. If the deflection is more than
allowable limit, the section has to be revised.
As an alternate, the depth of the beams should be
kept more than the limits prescribed in ACI Code.

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ANALYSIS OF SINGLY REINFORCED SECTION
1. Calculate the depth of neutral axis assuming the
section as under - reinforced.
a = As.fy/(0.85 f’c.b)
c = a/β1
2. Calculate the steel strain. Also calculate єt, if
different. (or check c/dt ratio)
ϵs= 0.003(d-c)/c =0.003(β1d-a)/a
ϵt= 0.003(dt-c)/c =0.003(β1dt- a)/a
If єt ≥єy.The section is under reinforced as
assumed, go to step no.3.
If єt < єy it will be a compression failure.
Recalculate the value of “a” from following eqn.
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3. Determine the value of strength reduction factor, ɸ
depending upon the value of єt.
єt ≥ 0.005 ɸ=0.90
єt ≤ єy ɸ=0.65
0.002 < єt < 0.005 --- Use transition formula.
ɸ=0.65+{0.25/(0.005 - єy)}x(єt - єy)
ɸ = 0.483 +83.33 ϵt. ------- For grade 60 steel.
4. Calculate the flexural capacity , ɸ Mn, as under.
ɸ Mn= ɸ As. fy (d - a/2) For under reinforced sec.
ɸ Mn= ɸ 0.85 f’c.b.a (d - a/2) For compression
= ɸ As.fs.(d - a/2) controlled section
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• For a given Mu calculate “R” and “ρ” (from table
A5.2 or following equation, table is preferred)
• Check for minimum and maximum reinforcement
• Then As = ρ b d
• Provide appropriate amount of reinforcement and
check for minimum and maximum spacing of reinf.
• Check for TCS
• Calculate capacity of the beam to ensure it is more
than the applied bending moment.
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Approximate equations
Similarly for analysis
Mu = ɸ Mn = 4 As d

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