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Thermodynamics

Dr.R.Harish

School of Mechanical and Building Sciences

VIT Chennai

Heat Transfer

Problem

600C from water at 300C. Calculate the quantity

of heat transfer and its direction. Specific heat of

water is 4186.8 J/Kg.k

A family has to prepare 100 Kg of hot water at 600C

from water at 300C. Calculate the quantity of heat

transfer and its direction. Specific heat of water is

4186.8 J/Kg.k

System: water

Mass m =100 Kg, T1=300C; T2=600C; c=4186.8 J/Kg.K

Heat transfer Q = mc (T2-T1)

Q = 12,560,400 J = 12560.4 KJ.

Here, water is the system and the heat transfer is

positive and hence the direction: Heat is transferred to

the water (ie; heat supplied to water) from the

surroundings.

Problem

some time. If its density is 1000 Kg/m3, specific

heat is 4200 J/kg.k, calculate the quantity of

heat transfer and its direction.

100 ml of coffee at 900C becomes 300C after some time. If

its density is 1000 Kg/m3, specific heat is 4200 J/kg.k,

calculate the quantity of heat transfer and its direction.

System: Coffee

V=100 ml = 100 x 10-3 l = 100 x 10-6 m3

Density = 1000 Kg/m3 ; (1000 litres = 1 m3)

Mass = density x volume = 0.1 Kg. T1=900C; T2=300C

Heat transfer Q = mc (T2-T1)

Q = -25200 J = -25.2 KJ.

Here, coffee is the system and the heat transfer is negative

and hence the direction: it is the heat transferred from the

coffee (ie heat lost from coffee) to the surroundings.

Work Transfer

Work Transfer

Work Transfer

Work Transfer

Work Transfer

Point and Path functions

Point and Path functions

Free expansion with zero work transfer

Free expansion with zero work transfer

Zeroth law of Thermodynamics

End of Module-1

Module-2

First Law of Thermodynamics

First Law of Thermodynamics

First law of thermodynamics

Energy balance for closed system

Perpetual Motion Machine of the first kind

(PMM-I)

• PMM-I is any cyclic device that receives no energy

from any source, but delivers either heat or work or

both to the surroundings.

and First law of thermodynamics.

• PMM-I is highly impossible.

Problem

cylinder device is compressed from 0.3 to 0.1

m3. During the process, pressure and volume

are related by p=aV-2 where a=8 KPa.m6,

calculate the magnitude of work transfer and

its direction.

• V1=0.3 m3; V2 = 0.1 m3; p= aV-2; a=8 KPa.m6

• The given system involves the change in volume and

hence the formula of the displacement work can be

used to evaluate work.

2

• W= 1 pdV

2

• W= 1 a V-2dV; p = aV-2

1 1

• W= a −

𝑉1 𝑉2

1 1

• W= 8 − = -53.33 KJ

0.3 0.1

• The magnitude of work transfer is 53.33 KJ and it is the

work done on the carbon dioxide gas, since it is

negative.

Characteristic Equation of State

Enthalpy

• Enthalpy (H) is defined as the sum of internal

energy and the product of pressure (p) and

volume (v) of the system. It is a point function

H = U + pV

• Specific enthalpy (h) is defined as the enthalpy

per unit mass and it is expressed as

h = u + pv

H/m = h; U/m = u; V/m = v

First law applied to closed system process

called non-flow process, because there is no

flow of mass across its boundaries.

• There can only be energy transfers without

any mass transfer.

• A closed system can undergo any possible

thermodynamic process namely constant

pressure, constant volume, isothermal,

adiabatic and polytropic process

Constant pressure (or Isobaric) process

• Pressure remains constant

throughout the process.

• According to Charles’s law,

if pressure is constant

𝑇2 𝑉2

=

𝑇1 𝑉1

• Heat transfer

In constant pressure process, specific heat c takes the value

of specific heat at constant pressure cp and hence Q

becomes

• Q = m cp (T2 – T1)

Constant pressure (or Isobaric) process

• Work transfer

The displacement work in a constant pressure process is

obtained as

2 2

W= 1 p ⦁ dV =p 1 dV since p = p1 = p2 = C

W = p (V2 – V1)

• Specific work transfer (w) is obtained as

w = W/m = p(v2 –v1)

• Change in Internal Energy and Enthalpy

Change in internal energy in a process is given as

(U2 – U1) = Q – W

Q = ∆H = m cp (T2 – T1)

Thus heat transfer in a constant pressure process is same

as that of change in enthalpy.

Constant volume (or Isochoric) process

• According to Charles’s law, if volume is constant

𝑇2 p2

=

𝑇1 p1

Constant volume (or Isochoric) process

• Heat transfer

In constant volume process, specific heat c takes

the value of specific heat at constant volume cv

and hence Q becomes

• Q = m cv (T2 – T1)

Constant volume process

• Work transfer

Volume remains constant, mass is also constant,

specific volume also remains constant

The displacement work in a constant volume

process is zero

2

W= 1 p ⦁ dV = 0 ; since dV=0, V=c

• Change in Internal Energy

Change in internal energy in a process is given as

(U2 – U1) = Q – W; W=0

Q = ∆U = m cv (T2 – T1)

Thus heat transfer in a constant volume process is

same as that of change in internal energy.

Specific heat

Specific heat

Joule’s Law

Joule’s Law

Relationship between specific heats

Specific enthalpy is the sum of specific internal energy and the

product of pressure and specific volume

h = u + pv

h = u + RT (since pv = RT) -------------(1)

Differentiating (1) w.r.t to T

dh du

= + R

dT dT

dh du

cp = cv + R ; since = cp; = cv

dT dT

cp = cv + R

cp - cv = R

cp

cv −1 =R

cv

Relationship between specific heats

cp

• specific heat ratio ɣ =

cv

• cv (ɣ -1) = R

𝑅

• cv =

ɣ −1

cp

• = ɣ

cv

ɣ𝑅

• cp = ɣcv =

ɣ−1

• For air ɣ = 1.4 and R = 0.287 KJ/kg.K

Relationship Between Two Specific Heats

Relationship Between Two Specific Heats

Isothermal process

Isothermal process

Adiabatic Process ( pvγ = constant)

Adiabatic Process ( pvγ = constant)

Adiabatic Process ( pvγ = constant)

Adiabatic Process ( pvγ = constant)

Adiabatic Process ( pvγ = constant)

Adiabatic Process ( pvγ = constant)

Adiabatic Process ( pvγ = constant)

Adiabatic Process ( pvγ = constant)

Adiabatic Process ( pvγ = constant)

Adiabatic Process ( pvγ = constant)

Polytropic process

Polytropic process

Polytropic process

Polytropic process

Problem

flow manner is in accordance with the law

V=(15/p)m3, where p is in bar. Evaluate the work

done on or by the system as pressure increases

from 10 to 100 bar. Indicate whether it is a

compression or expansion process. If the change

in internal energy is 500 KJ, calculate the

direction and magnitude of heat transfer.

• V=(15/p)m3 and p is in bar; p1= 10 bar = 1000 KPa

• ∆U = 500 KJ; p2= 100 bar = 10000 KPa

15 3

• V = m and p is in bar

𝑝

15 15

• V1 = = = 1.5 m3

𝑝1 10

15 15

• V2 = = = 0.15 m3

𝑝2 100

15 15

• p= bar = x 100 KPa

𝑉 𝑉

2 2 1500 2

• W= 1 pdV = 1 𝑉 dV = 1500[ln V]

1

𝑉2

• W = 1500 ln[ ]

= -3453.88 KJ

𝑉1

• The work done on the system is 3453.88 KJ

• It is a compression process since the pressure

increases and volume decreases. It is also

indicated by the negative sign of the work.

• ∆U = Q – W

• Q = ∆U + W

• Q = 500 + (-3453.88)

• Q = -2953.88 KJ.

• Hence 2953.88 KJ of heat is transferred from

the gas to the surroundings.

Problem

K and delivers it at 5.7486 bar by the law

pV1.4 = C. If the gas constant is 0.287 KJ/Kg.K,

calculate the specific flow work at inlet and

outlet, change in specific flow work. Take ɣ=1.4.

• p1 = 95.81 KPa, T1 = 300 K, p2 = 5.7486 bar

=574.86 KPa

• R = 0.287 KJ/Kg.K

• Ideal gas equation for unit mass, p1v1 = RT1

• V1 = RT/p1 = 0.899 Kg/m3.

• Since pv1.4 = C, p2v21.4 = p1v11.4; v2 = 0.25 kg/m3

• Specific flow work at inlet Wf1 = p1v1 = 86.1 KJ/Kg

• Specific flow work at outlet Wf2 = p2v2 = 143.715

KJ/Kg

• Change in specific flow work = ∆Wf = p2v2 - p1v1

= 57.615 KJ/Kg

• It is the work required to maintain the flow of air

through the compressor.

Problem

• During the compression stroke of

reciprocating compressor, the work done to

the air in the cylinder is 95 KJ/Kg and 43 KJ/Kg

of heat is rejected to the surroundings.

Determine the change in internal energy.

• W = -95 KJ/Kg (-ve sign since work is done on the

system)

• Q = -43 KJ/Kg (Since heat is rejected from the

system)

• Apply 1St law of thermodynamics

• Q = W + ∆U

• -43 = -95 + ∆U

• ∆U = 52 KJ/Kg

• Internal energy increases by 52 KJ/Kg.

Problem

• The following data refer to a closed system, which

undergoes a thermodynamic cycle consisting of four

processes.

Process Heat transfer Work transfer

KJ/min KJ/min

a-b 50,000 0

b-c -5,000 34,200

c-d -16,000 -2,200

d-a 0 -3,000

Show that the data is consistent with the first law of

thermodynamics and calculate

• Net rate of work output in MW

• Efficiency of the cycle

• Cyclic heat transfer of the cycle

= 𝑄𝛿 ׯ50000 – 5000 – 16000 + 0

= 29000 KJ/min

• Cyclic work transfer of the cycle

= 𝑊𝛿 ׯ0 + 34200 – 2200 -3000

= 29000 KJ/min

• From 1st law of thermodynamics

• 𝑊𝛿 ׯ = 𝑄𝛿 ׯ

• The given data is consistent with first law of

thermodynamics

• Net work output W = 29000/60 KJ/Sec

= 483.3 KW

= 0.48 MW

• Efficiency of the cycle ɳ = Work done / Heat

supplied

• Work done = = 𝑊𝛿 ׯ29000 KJ/min

• Heat supplied = 50,000 KJ/min ( Taking positive

heat only)

• Efficiency = 58%

Problem

stirred for half an hour by a motor which

supplies a power of 1 KW. If the tank is

perfectly insulated, calculate the change in

internal energy of water. Assuming that the

process occurs at constant pressure Cv for

water may be taken as 4.18 kJ/kg .k . Also

calculate the rise in temperature.

• Power P = 1 kW

• Time t = ½ hr

• Mass of water mw = 15 kg.

• For perfect insulation Q = 0

• Cv = 4.18 kJ/kg k

• By 1st law of thermodynamics

• Q = W + ∆U

• Q = 0 for perfect insulation

• W = - ∆U

• Work done W = 1 x ½ x 3600 since( 1hr = 3600 sec)

(convert kw-hr to kJ)

W = 1800 kJ

• ∆U = -1800 kJ

• -ve sign indicates that the internal energy is decreased.

• ∆U = mwCvw ∆T

1800 = 15 x 4.18 x ∆t

Rise in temperature ∆t = 28.70C.

Problem

• 25 people attended a farewell party in a small

room of size 10 m x 8 m x 5 m. Each person

gives up about 350 kJ of heat per hour.

Assuming that the room is completely sealed

off and insulated, calculate the air

temperature rise occurring within 10 minutes.

Assume Cv of air 0.718 kJ/kg k and R = 0.287

kJ/kg k and each person occupies a volume of

0.05 m3.

• Volume of the room , Vr = 10 x 8 x 5

= 400 m3

• Volume of air Va = Vr – (Vp x number of persons)

= 400 – (0.05 x 25)

= 398.75 m3

• Mass of air, m = PVa / RT

• = 1.013 x 100 x 398.75 / (0.287 x

293)

= 472.29 kg.

(assume p =1.013 bar and T = 200C)

• By 1st law of thermodynamics

• Q = W + ∆U

• Assume heat addition at constant volume process

• W=0

• Q = ∆U = Heat per person X number of persons

• = 350 x 25 = 8750 kJ/hr

• Heat loss for 10 minutes, Q = (8750/60) x 10

= 1458.33 kJ

• Heat gained by air, Q = mCv∆T

1458.33 = 472.29 x 0.718 x ∆T

∆T = 4.220C

Rise in temperature is 4.220C.

Problem

i. 1-2 in which it absorbs 200 KJ of heat and does

100KJ of work.

ii. 2-3 in which 50 KJ of heat is rejected and 80 KJ

of work is received

iii. 3-1 in which work transfer occurs under

adiabatic conditions.

Calculate the work transfer in the process 3-1, net

work and net heat transfer.

• Taking heat transferred to the system and

work transferred from the system as positive

• Q1-2 = +200 KJ; W1-2 = +100 KJ; Q2-3 = - 50 KJ

• W2-3 = - 80 KJ; Q3-1 = 0 KJ; W3-1 = ?

• Net heat transfer

∑Q = Q1-2 + Q2-3 + Q3-1 = 150 KJ

• Net Work transfer = ∑W = W1-2 + W2-3 + W3-1

• According to First law, ∑W = ∑Q

• W1-2 + W2-3 + W3-1 = 150

• 100 – 80 + W3-1 = 150

• W3-1 = + 130 KJ

• Work transfer in the process 3-1 being

positive, it is the work done by the system.

Problem

Problem

Problem

Problem

Problem

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