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MEE1003 Engineering

Thermodynamics

Dr.R.Harish
School of Mechanical and Building Sciences
VIT Chennai
Heat Transfer
Problem

A family has to prepare 100 Kg of hot water at


600C from water at 300C. Calculate the quantity
of heat transfer and its direction. Specific heat of
water is 4186.8 J/Kg.k
A family has to prepare 100 Kg of hot water at 600C
from water at 300C. Calculate the quantity of heat
transfer and its direction. Specific heat of water is
4186.8 J/Kg.k
System: water
Mass m =100 Kg, T1=300C; T2=600C; c=4186.8 J/Kg.K
Heat transfer Q = mc (T2-T1)
Q = 12,560,400 J = 12560.4 KJ.
Here, water is the system and the heat transfer is
positive and hence the direction: Heat is transferred to
the water (ie; heat supplied to water) from the
surroundings.
Problem

100 ml of coffee at 900C becomes 300C after


some time. If its density is 1000 Kg/m3, specific
heat is 4200 J/kg.k, calculate the quantity of
heat transfer and its direction.
100 ml of coffee at 900C becomes 300C after some time. If
its density is 1000 Kg/m3, specific heat is 4200 J/kg.k,
calculate the quantity of heat transfer and its direction.

System: Coffee
V=100 ml = 100 x 10-3 l = 100 x 10-6 m3
Density = 1000 Kg/m3 ; (1000 litres = 1 m3)
Mass = density x volume = 0.1 Kg. T1=900C; T2=300C
Heat transfer Q = mc (T2-T1)
Q = -25200 J = -25.2 KJ.
Here, coffee is the system and the heat transfer is negative
and hence the direction: it is the heat transferred from the
coffee (ie heat lost from coffee) to the surroundings.
Work Transfer
Work Transfer
Work Transfer
Work Transfer
Work Transfer
Point and Path functions
Point and Path functions
Free expansion with zero work transfer
Free expansion with zero work transfer
Zeroth law of Thermodynamics
End of Module-1
Module-2
First Law of Thermodynamics
First Law of Thermodynamics
First law of thermodynamics
Energy balance for closed system
Perpetual Motion Machine of the first kind
(PMM-I)
• PMM-I is any cyclic device that receives no energy
from any source, but delivers either heat or work or
both to the surroundings.

• This is a violation of law of conservation of energy


and First law of thermodynamics.
• PMM-I is highly impossible.
Problem

• Carbon dioxide (CO2) contained in a piston-


cylinder device is compressed from 0.3 to 0.1
m3. During the process, pressure and volume
are related by p=aV-2 where a=8 KPa.m6,
calculate the magnitude of work transfer and
its direction.
• V1=0.3 m3; V2 = 0.1 m3; p= aV-2; a=8 KPa.m6
• The given system involves the change in volume and
hence the formula of the displacement work can be
used to evaluate work.
2
• W= ‫׬‬1 pdV
2
• W= ‫׬‬1 a V-2dV; p = aV-2
1 1
• W= a −
𝑉1 𝑉2
1 1
• W= 8 − = -53.33 KJ
0.3 0.1
• The magnitude of work transfer is 53.33 KJ and it is the
work done on the carbon dioxide gas, since it is
negative.
Characteristic Equation of State
Enthalpy
• Enthalpy (H) is defined as the sum of internal
energy and the product of pressure (p) and
volume (v) of the system. It is a point function
H = U + pV
• Specific enthalpy (h) is defined as the enthalpy
per unit mass and it is expressed as
h = u + pv
H/m = h; U/m = u; V/m = v
First law applied to closed system process

• A process undergone by a closed system is


called non-flow process, because there is no
flow of mass across its boundaries.
• There can only be energy transfers without
any mass transfer.
• A closed system can undergo any possible
thermodynamic process namely constant
pressure, constant volume, isothermal,
adiabatic and polytropic process
Constant pressure (or Isobaric) process
• Pressure remains constant
throughout the process.
• According to Charles’s law,
if pressure is constant
𝑇2 𝑉2
=
𝑇1 𝑉1
• Heat transfer
In constant pressure process, specific heat c takes the value
of specific heat at constant pressure cp and hence Q
becomes
• Q = m cp (T2 – T1)
Constant pressure (or Isobaric) process
• Work transfer
The displacement work in a constant pressure process is
obtained as
2 2
W= ‫׬‬1 p ⦁ dV =p ‫׬‬1 dV since p = p1 = p2 = C
W = p (V2 – V1)
• Specific work transfer (w) is obtained as
w = W/m = p(v2 –v1)
• Change in Internal Energy and Enthalpy
Change in internal energy in a process is given as
(U2 – U1) = Q – W
Q = ∆H = m cp (T2 – T1)
Thus heat transfer in a constant pressure process is same
as that of change in enthalpy.
Constant volume (or Isochoric) process

• Volume remains constant throughout the process.


• According to Charles’s law, if volume is constant
𝑇2 p2
=
𝑇1 p1
Constant volume (or Isochoric) process

• Heat transfer
In constant volume process, specific heat c takes
the value of specific heat at constant volume cv
and hence Q becomes
• Q = m cv (T2 – T1)
Constant volume process
• Work transfer
Volume remains constant, mass is also constant,
specific volume also remains constant
The displacement work in a constant volume
process is zero
2
W= ‫׬‬1 p ⦁ dV = 0 ; since dV=0, V=c
• Change in Internal Energy
Change in internal energy in a process is given as
(U2 – U1) = Q – W; W=0
Q = ∆U = m cv (T2 – T1)
Thus heat transfer in a constant volume process is
same as that of change in internal energy.
Specific heat
Specific heat
Joule’s Law
Joule’s Law
Relationship between specific heats
Specific enthalpy is the sum of specific internal energy and the
product of pressure and specific volume
h = u + pv
h = u + RT (since pv = RT) -------------(1)
Differentiating (1) w.r.t to T
dh du
= + R
dT dT
dh du
cp = cv + R ; since = cp; = cv
dT dT
cp = cv + R
cp - cv = R
cp
cv −1 =R
cv
Relationship between specific heats
cp
• specific heat ratio ɣ =
cv
• cv (ɣ -1) = R
𝑅
• cv =
ɣ −1
cp
• = ɣ
cv
ɣ𝑅
• cp = ɣcv =
ɣ−1
• For air ɣ = 1.4 and R = 0.287 KJ/kg.K
Relationship Between Two Specific Heats
Relationship Between Two Specific Heats
Isothermal process
Isothermal process
Adiabatic Process ( pvγ = constant)
Adiabatic Process ( pvγ = constant)
Adiabatic Process ( pvγ = constant)
Adiabatic Process ( pvγ = constant)
Adiabatic Process ( pvγ = constant)
Adiabatic Process ( pvγ = constant)
Adiabatic Process ( pvγ = constant)
Adiabatic Process ( pvγ = constant)
Adiabatic Process ( pvγ = constant)
Adiabatic Process ( pvγ = constant)
Polytropic process
Polytropic process
Polytropic process
Polytropic process
Problem

A work done by a substance in a reversible non-


flow manner is in accordance with the law
V=(15/p)m3, where p is in bar. Evaluate the work
done on or by the system as pressure increases
from 10 to 100 bar. Indicate whether it is a
compression or expansion process. If the change
in internal energy is 500 KJ, calculate the
direction and magnitude of heat transfer.
• V=(15/p)m3 and p is in bar; p1= 10 bar = 1000 KPa
• ∆U = 500 KJ; p2= 100 bar = 10000 KPa
15 3
• V = m and p is in bar
𝑝
15 15
• V1 = = = 1.5 m3
𝑝1 10

15 15
• V2 = = = 0.15 m3
𝑝2 100

15 15
• p= bar = x 100 KPa
𝑉 𝑉
2 2 1500 2
• W= ‫׬‬1 pdV = ‫׬‬1 𝑉 dV = 1500[ln V]
1
𝑉2
• W = 1500 ln[ ]
= -3453.88 KJ
𝑉1
• The work done on the system is 3453.88 KJ
• It is a compression process since the pressure
increases and volume decreases. It is also
indicated by the negative sign of the work.
• ∆U = Q – W
• Q = ∆U + W
• Q = 500 + (-3453.88)
• Q = -2953.88 KJ.
• Hence 2953.88 KJ of heat is transferred from
the gas to the surroundings.
Problem

• A compressor receives air at 95810 Pa and 300


K and delivers it at 5.7486 bar by the law
pV1.4 = C. If the gas constant is 0.287 KJ/Kg.K,
calculate the specific flow work at inlet and
outlet, change in specific flow work. Take ɣ=1.4.
• p1 = 95.81 KPa, T1 = 300 K, p2 = 5.7486 bar
=574.86 KPa
• R = 0.287 KJ/Kg.K
• Ideal gas equation for unit mass, p1v1 = RT1
• V1 = RT/p1 = 0.899 Kg/m3.
• Since pv1.4 = C, p2v21.4 = p1v11.4; v2 = 0.25 kg/m3
• Specific flow work at inlet Wf1 = p1v1 = 86.1 KJ/Kg
• Specific flow work at outlet Wf2 = p2v2 = 143.715
KJ/Kg
• Change in specific flow work = ∆Wf = p2v2 - p1v1
= 57.615 KJ/Kg
• It is the work required to maintain the flow of air
through the compressor.
Problem
• During the compression stroke of
reciprocating compressor, the work done to
the air in the cylinder is 95 KJ/Kg and 43 KJ/Kg
of heat is rejected to the surroundings.
Determine the change in internal energy.
• W = -95 KJ/Kg (-ve sign since work is done on the
system)
• Q = -43 KJ/Kg (Since heat is rejected from the
system)
• Apply 1St law of thermodynamics
• Q = W + ∆U
• -43 = -95 + ∆U
• ∆U = 52 KJ/Kg
• Internal energy increases by 52 KJ/Kg.
Problem
• The following data refer to a closed system, which
undergoes a thermodynamic cycle consisting of four
processes.
Process Heat transfer Work transfer
KJ/min KJ/min
a-b 50,000 0
b-c -5,000 34,200
c-d -16,000 -2,200
d-a 0 -3,000
Show that the data is consistent with the first law of
thermodynamics and calculate
• Net rate of work output in MW
• Efficiency of the cycle
• Cyclic heat transfer of the cycle
‫ = 𝑄𝛿 ׯ‬50000 – 5000 – 16000 + 0
= 29000 KJ/min
• Cyclic work transfer of the cycle
‫ = 𝑊𝛿 ׯ‬0 + 34200 – 2200 -3000
= 29000 KJ/min
• From 1st law of thermodynamics
• ‫𝑊𝛿 ׯ = 𝑄𝛿 ׯ‬
• The given data is consistent with first law of
thermodynamics
• Net work output W = 29000/60 KJ/Sec
= 483.3 KW
= 0.48 MW
• Efficiency of the cycle ɳ = Work done / Heat
supplied
• Work done = ‫ = 𝑊𝛿 ׯ‬29000 KJ/min
• Heat supplied = 50,000 KJ/min ( Taking positive
heat only)
• Efficiency = 58%
Problem

• A mixing tank contains 15 kg of water and it is


stirred for half an hour by a motor which
supplies a power of 1 KW. If the tank is
perfectly insulated, calculate the change in
internal energy of water. Assuming that the
process occurs at constant pressure Cv for
water may be taken as 4.18 kJ/kg .k . Also
calculate the rise in temperature.
• Power P = 1 kW
• Time t = ½ hr
• Mass of water mw = 15 kg.
• For perfect insulation Q = 0
• Cv = 4.18 kJ/kg k
• By 1st law of thermodynamics
• Q = W + ∆U
• Q = 0 for perfect insulation
• W = - ∆U
• Work done W = 1 x ½ x 3600 since( 1hr = 3600 sec)
(convert kw-hr to kJ)
W = 1800 kJ
• ∆U = -1800 kJ
• -ve sign indicates that the internal energy is decreased.
• ∆U = mwCvw ∆T
1800 = 15 x 4.18 x ∆t
Rise in temperature ∆t = 28.70C.
Problem
• 25 people attended a farewell party in a small
room of size 10 m x 8 m x 5 m. Each person
gives up about 350 kJ of heat per hour.
Assuming that the room is completely sealed
off and insulated, calculate the air
temperature rise occurring within 10 minutes.
Assume Cv of air 0.718 kJ/kg k and R = 0.287
kJ/kg k and each person occupies a volume of
0.05 m3.
• Volume of the room , Vr = 10 x 8 x 5
= 400 m3
• Volume of air Va = Vr – (Vp x number of persons)
= 400 – (0.05 x 25)
= 398.75 m3
• Mass of air, m = PVa / RT
• = 1.013 x 100 x 398.75 / (0.287 x
293)
= 472.29 kg.
(assume p =1.013 bar and T = 200C)
• By 1st law of thermodynamics
• Q = W + ∆U
• Assume heat addition at constant volume process
• W=0
• Q = ∆U = Heat per person X number of persons
• = 350 x 25 = 8750 kJ/hr
• Heat loss for 10 minutes, Q = (8750/60) x 10
= 1458.33 kJ
• Heat gained by air, Q = mCv∆T
1458.33 = 472.29 x 0.718 x ∆T
∆T = 4.220C
Rise in temperature is 4.220C.
Problem

A system undergoes the following three processes


i. 1-2 in which it absorbs 200 KJ of heat and does
100KJ of work.
ii. 2-3 in which 50 KJ of heat is rejected and 80 KJ
of work is received
iii. 3-1 in which work transfer occurs under
adiabatic conditions.
Calculate the work transfer in the process 3-1, net
work and net heat transfer.
• Taking heat transferred to the system and
work transferred from the system as positive
• Q1-2 = +200 KJ; W1-2 = +100 KJ; Q2-3 = - 50 KJ
• W2-3 = - 80 KJ; Q3-1 = 0 KJ; W3-1 = ?
• Net heat transfer
∑Q = Q1-2 + Q2-3 + Q3-1 = 150 KJ
• Net Work transfer = ∑W = W1-2 + W2-3 + W3-1
• According to First law, ∑W = ∑Q
• W1-2 + W2-3 + W3-1 = 150
• 100 – 80 + W3-1 = 150
• W3-1 = + 130 KJ
• Work transfer in the process 3-1 being
positive, it is the work done by the system.
Problem
Problem
Problem
Problem
Problem