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Department of Education

Region IX, Zamboanga Peninsula

Division of Zamboanga Sibugay
Pioneer National High School



Group 7 Researchers:
Salkia Sacandal Elizabeth Ferrer
Erica Jailani Akbarez Sacandal
Nancy Indab
Welding requires skills from learners. It is important that
learners know how to operate equipment related to Shielded Metal
Arc Welding (SMAW). Before or at the start of the practice, one has
to know all of the equipment and how to handle the welding
machine efficiently and effectively.
According to Zalkind (2007), the future need for competent
welders should prompt educational programs to adequately train
individuals for industrial assignments as punctually as possible for
various levels of skill requirement. The challenge arises in high
schools, universities, and technical institutions to adequately recruit
and prepare younger talent. Hoffman et al (2012) mention that
Anecdotal evidence has shown that SMAW as the most difficult
weld process to master by secondary students.
Additionally, Wulf et al (1998) studied how to improve the
effectiveness of deliberate structured practices it is suggested
that students concentrate on the resulting effects of movements
rather than on the movements themselves.
The purpose of this study was to describe the welding skills
of Grade 12 learners with the hopes to provide inputs on their
current skills in welding. This study also hopes to give ample
information on how well the SMAW students of 12 Sincerity in
Pioneer National High School had grasped the necessary skills in
their field of specialization to further improve their skills and
also help the school administration to make curricular actions on
the rendering of the course to the learners.
Conceptual Framework
Independent Variable Dependent Variable

Performance of Grade
Limited Welding Skills 12 Sincerity SMAW


• Female
• Male

The first figure which is the independent variable is about the limited welding
skills that will affect the dependent variable which is the performance of Grade 12
Sincerity SMAW student. The last figure shows the extraneous variable of the
study which are the female and male respondents.
Review of Related Literature
Jeffuse et al. (2012) asserted that welding is a specialized task that usually
requires training and certification of abilities before a welder can work in
industry. Jeffus & Bower (2010) stated that a young person planning a career in
welding should possess good eyesight, manual dexterity, and good hand-eye
coordination, as well as an understanding of welding.
Fleming (1937) indicated that welding training programs have employed
aptitude tests that evaluate mechanical ability, ability to judge shapes and sizes,
ability to remember designs, and manual dexterity, but have not extensively
evaluated the predictive ability of individual factors regarding future
Giachino& Weeks (1985) also stated that welders need the ability to
concentrate on detailed work and must be free of disabilities that prevent
working in awkward positions.
Ericsson et al. (1993) noted inadequate performance strategies often
account for the lack of improvement. Further, Ericsson and others’ (1993)
recommended that to assure effective learning of motor skills students need to
be given explicit instructions about the best method and be supervised by an
Cary etal. (2005) stated Welding is a “joining process that
produces coalescence of materials by heating them to the welding
temperature, with or without the application of pressure or by the
application of pressure alone, and with or without the use of filler metal”
.In other words, welding is the fusion of two pieces of material by heating
the materials to the point of melting and flowing together.
This is supported by Choquet (2008), which states that virtual
welding simulator can build motor skill such as detecting the movement
of head and hand during welding and helping students to identify
optimum point of view during welding process.
Thilakawardhana, (2002) the existence of these simulators is parallel
with the emphasis on computer based training (CBT). Generally Technical
and Vocational Educational Training (TVET) has already converged to
education and training by CBT.CBT is one way of training without
supervision from instructors. With CBT, trainees can interact with
software and get “hands on” training. This training style also save time,
energy and money and can be done according to needs and user ability.
Statement of the Problem
This study study sought to answer the following
1. What are the effects of having limited welding
skills in the performance of Grade 12 Sincerity
SMAW students?
2. Does it affect the work of the welders?
3. Is there a significant difference between;
3.1 Female
3.2 Male