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Chemistry: Unit 5

Ms. Doati
Mrs. Gallardo, Principal
Bronxwood Preparatory Academy
7/19/2019
How do such a small number of elements
produce a wide range of compounds?

Covalent Bonding- is a
chemical bond that involves
the sharing of electron pairs
between atoms.

Ionic Bonding- is the


complete transfer of valence
electron(s) between atoms.
How do such a small number of elements
produce a wide range of compounds?

Lewis Dot Structures-

are diagrams that show the bonding between atoms of a molecule and the
lone pairs of electrons that may exist in the molecule.
Let’s Try one Together

Draw the Lewis Dot structure of H2SO4


H2SO4
Activity

Compare and Contrast Covalent and ionic bond and give


examples drawing lewis dot structures on chart paper
How do such a small number of elements
produce a wide range of compounds?
Polar covalent bonds- the electrons shared by the atoms
spend a greater amount of time

Non-polar covalent bonds- are a type of chemical bond


where two atoms share a pair of electrons with each other.

Electronegativity

Non Polar: difference is between 0.2 and 0.5

Polar: 0.5 to 1.6


How do such a small number of elements
produce a wide range of compounds?

https://www.ptable.com/#Property/Electronegativity

Non Polar= CH4

Electronegativity of C= 2.5

Electronegativity of H= 2.1

Electronegativity of CH4= 2.5-2.1= 0.04


How do such a small number of elements
produce a wide range of compounds?

https://www.ptable.com/#Property/Electronegativity

Polar= H2O

Electronegativity of H= 2.1

Electronegativity of O= 3.4

Electronegativity of H2O= 3.4-2.1= 1.3


How do such a small number of elements
produce a wide range of compounds?

Valence- shell electron pair


repulsion (VSEPR)- assumes
that each atom in a molecule will
achieve a geometry that
minimizes the repulsion between
electrons in the valence shell of
that atom.
Activity

Placemat

In pairs complete at least 5 structures on your side of the


placemat

Label one person A and 1 person B

Switch with your partner and evaluate their work

Ask your classmates if you have any questions


Ionic Bonding
Let’s do one together

CaCl2
How do such a small number of elements
produce a wide range of compounds?

Rule 1: An ionic compound is named first by its cation and then by its anion

Cation keeps its full name

Anion changes the last three letters to ide

For example KCl is Potassium Chloride

Rule 2: When the formula unit contains two or more of the same polyatomic ion, that ion
is written in parentheses with the subscript written outside the parentheses.

For Example: CuCl2 is Copper (II) Chloride


How do such a small number of elements
produce a wide range of compounds?
1. Remove the ending of the second element, and add “ide” just like in ionic
compounds.
2. When naming molecular compounds prefixes are used to dictate the number
of a given element present in the compound. ” mono-” indicates one, “di-”
indicates two, “tri-” is three, “tetra-” is four, “penta-” is five, and “hexa-” is six,
“hepta-” is seven, “octo-” is eight, “nona-” is nine, and “deca” is ten.
3. If there is only one of the first element, you can drop the prefix. For example,
CO is carbon monoxide, not monocarbon monoxide.
4. If there are two vowels in a row that sound the same once the prefix is added
(they “conflict”), the extra vowel on the end of the prefix is removed. For
example, one oxygen would be monooxide, but instead it’s monoxide. The
extra o is dropped.

Example: SiI4 is called silicon tetraiodide


How do such a small number of elements
produce a wide range of compounds?
1. Any polyatomic ion with the suffix “-ate” uses the suffix “-ic” as an
acid. So, HNO3 will be nitric acid.
2. When you have a polyatomic ion with one more oxygen than the “-
ate” ion, then your acid will have the prefix “per-” and the suffix “-ic.”
For example, the chlorate ion is ClO3–. Therefore, HClO4 is called
perchloric acid.
3. With one fewer oxygen than the “-ate” ion, the acid will have the
suffix “-ous.” For example, chlorous acid is HClO2.
4. With two fewer oxygen than the “-ate” ion, the prefix will be “hypo-”
and the suffix will be “-ous.” For example, instead of bromic acid,
HBrO3, we have hypobromous acid, HBrO.
Activity

Name the compounds around the room, go to the answer and


then name the next one, all the compounds will be spread out
across the room you will be in groups of three