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Subject: Concepts in Computer

Engineering (BECME303T)

UNIT I

Input/Output Units And Computer


Memory

-Prof. Goldi C. Jarbais


Syllabus

Unit I - CCE G. c. jarbaise


Unit I - CCE G.C. Jarbais
Input/Output Units

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Description of Computer Input Units
1)Keyboard
2)Video Terminal or Video Display Unit (VDU)
3)Flat Panel Display
4)Computer Mouse

Unit I - CCE G.C. Jarbais


1) Keyboard
 The most common input unit is a keyboard is
shown in figure.

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 The keyboard consists of the following major
categories of keys:
a)Letter keys: A, B, C,.....
b)Digit keys: 1, 2, 3,....
c)Special character keys: <,>,@,#,-,+,......
d)Non-printable control keys: Backspace key,
Enter Key, Arrow keys, Tab key, Shift key
e)Function keys: F1, F2, F3,......, F15

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2) Video Terminal (VDU)
 VDU consists of a television screen & a
keyboard.
 VDU may be classified as an output unit as it
displays the results of computation, we describe
it along with input units as data typed using
keyboard is immediately dispayed on VDU
screen.
 VDUs use cathode ray television tube.
 The cathode ray television tube is scanned by
electron beam to create a raster of horizontal
lines.
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2) Video Terminal (VDU) cont...
 The intensity of electron beam is increased at
certain moments creating bright spots on face of
tube. Each such dot is called picture element.
 A display normally has 80 characters per
horizontal line & 24 such such line lines on
screen.

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 VDU have several disadvantages among which
are:

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2) Video Terminal (VDU) cont...

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3) Flat Panel Display
 Recently display devices known as flat panel
displays are gaining in popularity.
 The reasons for popularity are:

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 The main disadvantages of flat panel display
are:

 Common characteristics of these displays are


they have embedded grid of wires, at
intersection of which light emitting device is
kept.
 The device at intersection of these wires glows
one after the another as shown by dark dots in
fig. Unit I - CCE G.C. Jarbais
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 Currently the most popular flat panel display
.
used in laptop computer, is called Liquid
Crystal Display (LCD).
 There are 2 types of LCD available in market:
1)Passive matrix LCDs- includes Twisted
Pneumatic LCDs & Super Twisted Pneumatic
LCDs.
2)Active matrix LCDs- in which at intersection of
x, y wires is Thin Film Transistor.

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4) Computer Mouse
 It is a handheld device fitted with one or more
buttons & shape to sit conveniently under one’s
palm.
 Mouse is a locator.
 Currently most common mouse is Optical
mouse.
 Nowadays wireless mice are being
manufactured.

Unit I - CCE G.C. Jarbais


Other Input Methods
1)Magnetic Ink Character Recognition (MICR)
2)Optical Mark Reading and Recognition (OMR)
3)Optical Character Recognition (OCR)
4)Bar Coding

Unit I - CCE G.C. Jarbais


1) Magnetic Ink Character
Recognition (MICR)
 In this, human readable characters are printed on
documents(such as cheques) using a special magnetic ink.
 MICR can recognize such character.

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2) Optical Mark Reading and
Recognition (OMR)
 In this method special pre-printed forms are
designed with boxes which can be marked with
a dark pencil or ink.
 These documents are used for:

Unit I - CCE G.C. Jarbais


3) Optical Character Recognition or
Optical Scanner (OCR)
 An optical scanner is a device used to read an image, convert it
into a set of 0s & 1s and are stored in computer’s memory.
 Image can be handwritten document, typed or printed document
or picture.
 An optical scanner converts an image into bitmap representation.
 Each bit in representation of image is called a pixel(picture
element).
 There are 2 major types of scanner:
1) Hand-held scanner
2) Flat bed scanner

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 Hand-held scanner is around 13cm long &
15cm wide with a handle to enable it to be held
conveniently in hand.

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Fig. Hand-held scanner

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 A set of light emitting diodes is enclosed in it.
 If the scanner moved slowly(2.2cm/sec) the
image is converted into 400 bits/inch & stored.
 A flat bed scanner consists of a box with a
glass plate on top & cover which covers the
glass plate.
 Document to be scanned is place over the glass
plate.
 It takes about 20 sec to scan entire page of size
21cm X 28cm.
 The content of page is stored as bit map of 400
dots/inch. Each dot may be encoded as 1 bit.
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Fig. Flat bed scanner

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4) Bar Coding
 In this method small bars of varying thickness &
spacing are printed on packages, tags, etc.,
which are read by optical readers & converted to
electric pulses.
 In most countries each grocery product has
been given a unique 10 digit code called Unique
Product Code & this is represented by Bar
code..

Unit I - CCE G.C. Jarbais


Computer Output Units
 There are 3 principal devices to output data from
a computer: 1.Printer 2. Video terminal
3. Computer output microfilm.
 Printer & microfilming devices- hard copy
devices.
 There is another set of output devices: Floppy
disk, writable CDROM & pen drives- soft copy
devices.

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Computer Output Units
Printers
Impact printers Non-Impact printers Plotters

Printers Serial printers Inkjet printers Laser printers

Line printers Dot matrix printers

Drum printers Chain printers Drum plotter Flat bed plotter


Line matrix printers
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1) Printers
 Printers fall into 2 categories: Line & Serial Character
printers.
 A line printer prints a complete line at a time.
 Printing speed varies from 200 to 2000 lines/min with
75 to 300 characters on a 15 inch line.
 6 to 8 lines/vertical-inch are printed.
 Line printers types: 1. Drum printers 2. Chain
printers 3. Line matrix printers
 Drum printer consisted of cylindrical drum on whose
surface sets of characters to be printed were
embossed.
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 Chain printers had a steel band on which character
sets were embossed.
 Due to inflexibility to change fonts & to print graphics
these printers(drum & chain printers) have been
superseded by Line matrix printers.
 Both printers(drum & chain printers) use print head
consisting of pins which are moved electromechanically
to strike ribbon placed between print head & paper.
 A line of characters to be printed are stored in temporary
memory & used by appropriate digital electronic circuits
to activate pins to print a line.
 In line matrix printers use a comb of hammers print a
portion of pixels of a line.
 By shifting comb back & forth slightly, the entire pixel
line is printed. Unit I - CCE G.C. Jarbais
Fig a) Drum printer Fig b) Chain printer

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Fig a) Drum printer Fig c) Chain printer

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 The main features of line matrix printer are:
1.Any one of several fonts can be selected.
2.Graphics can be printed.
3.Bar codes can be printed.
4.By using carbon paper between the sheets of
paper several copies(upto 6) can be taken.
5.Ribbon can be reused.

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Paper used in line printer:
 It use continuous fan-fold forms of paper rather
than a single sheets to allow fast printing.
 This paper is called continuous stationery & has
holes on both sides.
 The paper is advanced through printer using
sprockets which use holes on sides of paper for
this purpose.
 The faster printer use stacker to re-fold & stack
the fan-fold continuous stationery as they
emerge from printer.

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Application of line printers:
 It is used when large volumes of data are to be
printed. Ex: Pay roll, marksheets.

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Fig. Line matrix printer

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2) Serial printers
 Serial printer print one character at a time, with
print head moving across a line.
 They are simillar to typewriters.
 They are normally slow (30 to 300
characters/sec).
 A popular serial printer is Dot matrix printer.

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printer head

Fig. Dot matrix printers


Fig. Dot matrix printer head

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3) Inkjet printer
 The character produced dot matrix printer is made of a
finite number of dots, the appearance of printed output is
not very good.
 For better apperance where characters are represented
by sharp continuous lines, a character printer known as
inkjet printer is used.
 Inkjet printer consists of a print head which has a number
of small holes or nozzles.
 Individual holes can be heated very rapidly by an
integrated circuit resistor.
 When resistor heats up, ink near it vaporizes & is ejected
through nozzles & makes a dot on paper placed near
head.
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Inkjet printer

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Fig. Inkjet printer

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4) Laser Printer
 The basic limitation of serial dot matrix printers & inkjet
printers is mechanical movement of head is relatively
slow due to high inertia of mechanical elements.
 To eliminate this limitation the laser printers are
developed.
 In lase printers, an electronically controlled laser beam
traces out the desired character to be printed on a
photoconductive drum.
 The drum attracts an ink toner on exposed areas. This is
transferred to paper which comes in contact with drum.
 This printer give excellent outputs & can print variety of
font. Unit I - CCE G.C. Jarbais
Laser Printer

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Fig. Laser Printer

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Comparison of printers

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5) Plotter
 Special plotters to produce good quality drawings &
graphs have been designed & available in market.
 There are two types of plotters:
1. Drum plotter 2. Flat bed plotter

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1. Drum Plotter:

 In drum plotter, paper on which graph is to drawn is


mounted on a rotating drum.
 A pen can move linearly i.e. perpendicular to direction of
drum rotation, is mounted on carriage.
 The pen can move left to right or right to left. The pen
also move up or down.
 The drum can rotate either clockwise or anticlockwise
direction under control of plotting instructions sent bt
computer.
 The movement of pen & drum are controlled by graph
plotting program. The program can thus draw various
graphs & also annotate them by using pen to draw
characters. Unit I - CCE G.C. Jarbais
2. Flat bed plotter

 Flat bed plotter has a stationary horizontal plotting


surface on which paper is fixed.
 The pen is mounted on a carriage which can move in
either X or Y direction.
 The pen can move up or down.
 A graph plotting computer program is used to move pen
to trace the desired graph.
 The primary applications of these printers are
engineering drawings such as plan of building & of
machine parts.

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6) Microfilming device
 Microfilming, also called microphotography, consists in
the reduction of images to such a small size that they
cannot be read without optical assistance.
 This amazing photographic compression often results in
a ninety-nine percent saving of space.
 The microfilming service is one of the most extensively
used and common practices in modern reprographic
science.
 The remarkable increase in microfilming activities is due
to the recognition that a large portion of books,
periodicals and newspapers are deteriorating because of
the poor quality of paper and print.
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 The use of microfilming for almost seventy years has
provided an excellent reproduction method for
recording photographic images of printed materials.

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Memory Cell
 A memory is made of a large no. of cells, with each cell
capable of storing one bit.
 The cell may be organized as a set of addressable words,
each word storing a sequence of bits.
 In one such organization, time to store or retrieve a word
is independent of address of word. This organization is
called as Random Access Memory (RAM), is used as
main memory of computers.
 Another organization arrange cells in a linear sequence to
form a serial access memory.
 Cells used in random access memory are made with
semiconductor flip-flops or capacitor.
Unit I - CCE G.C. Jarbais
Memory Cell

• The memory cell is the fundamental building


block of computer memory.
• The memory cell is an electronic circuit that
stores one bit of binary information and it must
be set to store a logic 1 (high voltage level) and
reset to store a logic 0 (low voltage level).
• Its value is maintained/stored until it is changed
by the set/reset process. The value in the
memory cell can be accessed by reading it.
Memory cell architectures
• Many different memory cell architectures have
been used including
but the most common ones used are
flip-flops and capacitors.
Magnetic-core memory

• Core memory uses toroids (rings) of a hard


magnetic material (usually a semi-hard ferrite)
as transformer cores, where each wire threaded
through the core serves as a transformer
winding. Three or four wires pass through each
core.
Bubble memory
Bubble memory is a type of non-volatile computer
memory that uses a thin film of a magnetic
material to hold small magnetized areas, known
as bubbles or domains, each storing one bit of
data.
Flip-flops and capacitors.
• The SRAM, static ram memory cell is a type of
flip-flop circuit, usually implemented using FETs.
These require very low power to keep the stored
value when not being accessed.
• A second type, DRAM is based around a
capacitor.
• Charging and discharging this capacitor can
store a '1' or a '0' in the cell.
Flip-flops and capacitors...

However, the charge in this capacitor will slowly


leak away, and must be refreshed periodically.
Because of this refresh process, DRAM uses
more power, but can achieve greater storage
densities.
 Cells used in serial access memories(hard disks, floppy disks &
tapes) of large size are magnetic dipoles on movable
magnetizable surfaces.

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Memory Organization

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