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PRINCIPLES OF

MEDICAL TECHNOLOGY
PRACTICE 2

Faculty of Pharmacy
Department of Medical Technology
INFECTION CONTROL, SAFETY,
FIRST AID AND PERSONAL
WELLNESS
2 Unit Two

2
OUTLINE

◉ Components ◉ Proper  Standard


of the Chain procedures for and
of Infection, hand hygiene, Transmission-
infection- putting on and based
control removing precautions
procedure protective for blood-borne
and clothing and pathogens
functions of entering the
infection- OR and ICUs
control
program
OUTLINE
 Hazards,warning ◉ Symptoms  Personal
symbols, actions of shock, hygiene, proper
to take if first aid nutrition, rest,
incidents occur, procedures exercise, back
and rules to protection, and
international
follow for proper stress
biological, CPR management in
electrical, fire, personal
radiation, wellness
and chemical
safety
LEARNING OUTCOMES
◉ Identify the ◉ Perform  Describe
components proper standard and
of the Chain procedures Transmission-
of Infection, for hand based
infection- hygiene, precautions
control putting on and for blood-borne
procedure removing pathogens
and functions protective
of infection- clothing and
control entering the
program OR and ICUs
LEARNING OUTCOMES
 Describe ◉ Identify  Describe the
hazards,warning symptoms role of personal
symbols, actions to of shock, hygiene, proper
take if incidents first aid nutrition, rest,
occur, and rules to procedures exercise, back
follow for proper protection, and
international
biological, stress
electrical, fire, CPR management in
radiation, personal
and chemical wellness
safety
INFECTION CONTROL
INFECTION: Definition
• When a microorganism invades
body, multiples, and causes
injury or disease
Microbes include:
• Bacteria

• Fungi

• Protozoa

• Viruses
INFECTION CONTROL
TYPES OF INFECTION:

A. Communicable B. Nosocomial &


Healthcare –associated
Infections (HAIs)
INFECTION CONTROL
CHAIN OF INFECTION
INFECTION CONTROL
CHAIN OF INFECTION
INFECTION CONTROL
BREAKING THE CHAIN OF INFECTION
INFECTION CONTROL
Infection-Control Program
• To protect patients, employees, visitors, &
others
• To break chain of infection
• Monitors & collects data on all infections
occurring in institution
• Institutes special precautions in event of
outbreaks
Components
• Employee screening & immunization
• Evaluation & treatment
• Surveillance
INFECTION CONTROL
Infection-Control Methods

Hand hygiene Personal Protective equipment


INFECTION CONTROL
Glove Removal
INFECTION CONTROL
Respirator

• N95 respirators
required when
entering rooms
of patients
• with pulmonary
tuberculosis
• other diseases
with airborne
transmission
INFECTION CONTROL
Order for donning PPE Order for removing PPE
1. Gown 1. Gloves
2. Mask (make sure 2. Gown
it covers nose & 3. Mask (touch only
mouth) strings)
3. Gloves (pulled
over the cuffs of the
gown)
* Wash hands after
removing PPE
ENTERING OR, NURSERY,
AND ICUs
Infection-control techniques:
• Wash hands and put on clean
gloves, gown, and mask
• Gather only those items necessary to
perform the specimen collection
• Leave the blood collection try in the anteroom
outside room (OR, ICU, Nursery)
• Remove gloves, decontaminate hands, and put on
new gloves between each patient
INFECTION CONTROL
Isolation Procedures: Overview
◉ Keep patients with communicable
infections separate from others
◉ Prevent spread of infection
◉ Protect patients with compromised
immune system
◉ Isolation requires doctor’s order
◉ Infected patient is confined to private
room
INFECTION CONTROL
Protective/Reverse Isolation

• For patients highly susceptible to


infections

• Used for immunocompromised patients


whose body defenses are not capable of
protecting them from infections

• Examples: burn patients, organ transplant


patients, AIDS patients, and neutropenic
chemotherapy patients
INFECTION CONTROL
Traditional isolation systems
1. Category-specific system
• based on the route of
2. Disease-specific
infection, i.e., enteric,system
respiratory,
• based on etcthe modes of
• resulted in overisolation
transmission of the of
patients
common diseases
• needless extra costs
• list was available and
identified specific isolation
precautions
INFECTION CONTROL
Universal Precautions
• blood and body fluids of all
people are potentially
infectious

Body substance isolation


• goes beyond UP; gloves for
contacting moist body
substances
INFECTION CONTROL
Guideline for Isolation Procedures
Standard precautions
• Used for all patients
• #1 strategy for control of nosocomial infection
• Covers blood, all body fluids, skin breaks, mucous
membranes
Transmission-based precautions
• Used for patients known/suspected to have certain
infections
• Three types: 1. airborne, 2. droplet, 3. contact
INFECTION CONTROL
Airborne precautions Droplet precautions

Contact precautions
FIRST AID
External Hemorrhage
Definition:
• Abnormal or profuse bleeding
Treatment
• Firm, direct pressure to wound using cloth or
gauze
• Elastic bandage can be used to hold compress in
place
• Only use tourniquet as last resort
Shock
Definition:
• Condition involving insufficient
return of blood to heart
Symptoms
• Results in inadequate supply
of oxygen to body • Pale, cold, clammy skin
organs/tissues • Rapid, weak pulse
• Caused by hemorrhage, heart shallow
• Increased,
attack, trauma, & drugbreathing rate
reactions • Expressionless face &
staring eyes
CPR and EMERGENCY
CARDIOVASCULAR CARE

Training Recommended by AHA for


Healthcare Pros
• 6- to 8-hour Basic Lifesaving Healthcare
Provider Course
• Includes CPR, use of AED, removing
airway obstruction
• Certification good for 2 years
CPR and EMERGENCY
CARDIOVASCULAR CARE
AHA CPR and ECC Guideline Updates
• Hands-only CPR for lay rescuers
• 100/min compression rate
• Infant & child compression depth of ½ anterior-
posterior chest diameter
• Allow complete chest recoil between compressions
• Minimize interruptions in chest compressions (try to
limit to less than 10 seconds)
• Avoid excessive ventilation (BS single rescuer
compression-to-ventilation ratio stays at 30:2)
CPR and EMERGENCY
CARDIOVASCULAR CARE
AHA Chain of Survival
1. Early access to care
2. Early CPR
3. Early defibrillation
4. Advanced care
PERSONAL WELLNESS
Personal Hygiene
• Shower/bathe regularly & use deodorant
• Brush teeth & use mouthwash several times
per day
• Hair clean & neat

• Fingernails clean, short, neatly trimmed

• No heavily scented lotions or colognes


PERSONAL WELLNESS

Proper Nutrition
Rest and Exercise
• Plant-based diet rich in variety of
• Lack of rest & sleep can
vegetables, fruits, & legumes
lead to fatigue & other
• Avoid processed, starchy
medical staple
problems
foods • Stay fit to be healthier &
• Balance of carbohydrate,
live longer fat,
protein, vitamins, minerals, fiber
• Focus on strength,
flexibility, & endurance
PERSONAL WELLNESS

Back Protection
• Use proper lifting technique
PERSONAL WELLNESS

Stress Management
Stress:
• condition or state
• results when physical, chemical
or emotional factors
• cause mental or bodily tension Symptoms :
1. Hypertension
2. Ulcers
3. Migraines
4. Nervous breakdown
5. Weakened immune system
WAYS TO CONTROL
STRESS
1. Identify the problem
2. Relax
3. Exercise
4. Plan
5. Set realistic goal
6. Avoid procrastination
END OF
CHAPTER 2