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# RING & FIELD

## HISTORY ON RING THEORY

 Introduced by Richard Dedekind (German
mathematician) in the late 19th century, has grown in
importance throughout the 20th century. ((adapted
from ABSTRACT ALGEBRA by PAUL GAURETT
page 47,CHAPMAN AND HALL,2007))
 Richard Dedekind contributed to abstract algebra,
axomatic foundation for the natural numbers,
algebraic number theory and the definition of the
real numbers. (adapted from Wikipedia,
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Richard_Dedekind )
DEFINITION OF RING
(ADAPTED FROM ABSTRACT ALGEBRA BY PAUL GAURETT PAGE 47,CHAPMAN A ND HALL,2007)

## A ring is a set R with two operations :

• Abelian group • Associative property :
• Distributive laws: a*(b*c) = (a*b)*c
 a*(b+c) = a*b + a*c • May not be commutative
 (b+c)*a = b*a + c*a

## a*b = b*a => “R is a commutative ring”

R contains 1 (identity under x ) => “R is a ring with identity”
VENN DIAGRAM FOR RING
GROUP

RING

FIELD
PROPERTIES OF RING
(1) R is closed under addition: a + b ∈ R.
(2) Addition is associative: (a + b) + c = a + (b + c).
(3) Addition is commutative: a + b = b + a.
(4) R contains an additive identity element, called zero and usually denoted by 0 or
a +0=0+ a = a.
(5) Every element of R has an additive inverse: for each a, there exists an x ∈ R such that
a+x =0= x + a. We write x = −a.
(6) R is closed under multiplication: ab ∈ R.
(7) Multiplication is associative: (ab)c = a(bc).
(8) Multiplication distributes over addition: a(b + c) = ab + ac and (a + b)c = ac + bc.
EXAMPLE OF RING
Theorem 3.3. Additive inverses are unique.

Proof :
Assume that x and y are both inverses of a.
Then x = x +0 = x + (a + y) = (x + a) + y =0+ y = y.
HISTORY OF FIELD
THEORY
 Kurt Lewin developed field theory in the
1940s. (adapted from Wikipedia,
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Field_theory_(
psychology) )
DEFINITION OF FIELD
(ADAPTED FROM ABSTRACT ALGEBRA BY PAUL GAURETT PAGE 47,CHAPMAN AN D HALL,2007)

##  A ring R is called a field if

i. R is commutative,
ii. R is a ring with 1
iii. for every a ∈ R, with a ≠ 0, there exists 1/a ∈ R such that a* (1/a) = (1/a) * a = 1
iv. 1 ≠ 0.
EXAMPLE OF FIELD
Theorem 1:
The multiplicative inverse of a non-zero element of a field is unique.

Proof:
Let there be two multiplicative inverse a–1 and a′ for a non-zero element a∈F. Let (1) be the unity of the field F.
∴a* a–1= 1 and a * a' =1 so that a* a–1=a*a'.
Since F – {0} is a multiplicative group, applying left cancellation, we get a–1= a′.